Medicine: Cancer Therapy:

Biomagnetic Applications

for Breast Cancer Therapy

 

by Dr. Samir A Hamouda*, Dr. Aseil Elshaleia** and Dr. Nour S Hamouda**

* Department of Physics, University of Benghazi, Libya                                                                          **Faculty of Medicine, University of Benghazi, Libya

dr_s_hamouda@yahoo.ie

 

Link for Citation Purposes: https://bwwsociety.org/journal/current/2020/nov-dec/biomagnetic-applications-for-breast-cancer-therapy.htm

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial uses of static magnetic field for breast cancer treatments. The basic physical methods applying magnetism and ultrasound are introduced. The role of trace elements concentration in both carcinogenesis and in biological fluids as diagnostic aids in patients with cancer is discussed. Challenges and opportunities for further research and development of static magnetic field on breast cancer cell systems are suggested.

 

Key words: Static magnetic field, ultrasound, breast cancer, trace elements, cancer therapy, biomagnetic

 

Introduction

Cancer cells are described by the presence of uncontrolled growth of cells as these cells pervade and damage the all-around tissues and stretch out throughout the body via lymphatic and blood vessels. At present time, magnetic fields are being used to treat various health problems. Magnets are utilized to speed recovery after surgery as well as to promote circulation, and bones treatment [1]. It was stated that biomagnetic therapy affects the human body by means of interacting with the nervous, circulatory and endocrine systems [1]. For the nervous system, the application of biomagnetic therapy helps to increase flow of oxygen to cells and take free radicals and wastes away from cells as blood is magnetized. For the circulatory system, it was stated that the electrical conductivity of the blood increases as biomagnets are used or worn. This ultimately increases the ions density in the blood, resulting in improved efficiency of blood flow throughout the body and furthermore a more stable blood pressure [1]. For the endocrine system, a practical explanation lies in the ability of magnetic fields to form a secondary current that forms around lines of flow in cells leading to tissue activation by means of stimulating cell metabolism. This current would then strengthen cell functions, increase in the metabolism of the cell and aids new cell growth [1]. On the other and, the magnetic field energy of the magnet negative-pole can interfere with the ability of nerve cells to carry pain impulses to the brain [1].

 

When a negative magnetic field is placed near a nerve, the positively charged ions of the nerve impulse are attracted to the negative-pole magnetic field, thus reducing the flow of positively charged ions through the nerves to the brain [1]. Magnetic fields may work to regulate hormone secretions in endocrine glands. Normalizing hormone functions in the body impacts conditions caused by a hormonal imbalance. Hormones are an integral factor in regeneration and overall energy levels, while good circulation ensures that hormonal levels are distributed correctly throughout the body [1]

 

Sources of Magnetic fields

Magnetic fields are generated in two ways: Firstly, a magnetic field is generated when electrically charged particles move through a conductor wire or coiled conductor. Such a mechanism, resulting in the production of two field types: static or time-varying magnetic fields [2]. Secondly, a magnetic field is generated from permanent magnets. Electrons within other type materials have their own intrinsic magnetic fields that, when added as vectors, give a net magnetic field. Such permanent magnets do not require a moving electric current. The SI unit for magnetic field strength is the Tesla (newton per ampere-meter) (where 1 Tesla =104 Gauss). Static magnetic fields from permanent magnets are the subject of this review. Static magnet generates a field which penetrates the skin, tissues and bones, increasing the flow of blood, oxygen and nutrients which in turn promotes healing [2].

 

Magnets are a flat surface type, the end of the magnet that points north is marked the south pole of the magnet (the negative pole) because it's attracted to the north pole of the earth. That end of the magnet that attracts the south pole of the earth is marked the north pole of the magnet (the Positive pole) because opposites attract. The Negative pole (South) is usually marked with a red color. The Positive pole (North) is usually indicated by a blue colored- sticker [2].

Magnetic fields can be represented diagrammatically so that the density of lines reflects the strength of the magnetic field. Field lines form closed loops, emerging from the nega­tive (South) pole of the magnet and enter through the positive (North) pole (see figure1).

 

 

 

Figure1. (a) Magnetic field lines from a permanent magnet [3]. (b) The density of magnetic field lines is shown to reflect the field strength [2].

 

Field strength is the amount of force exerted by the magnet on charged particles within the field. For example, iron filings will align with the field to reveal patterns in the lines of force [2].

It has been recognized for some time that the behaviour of certain types of biological materials is influenced by magnetic fields. The realization of magnetic substances (traces of magnetite) in the human brain [4] may inspire with that human body physiologically designed to react with magnetic fields [4]. It has been presumed that pathological state may well result from misalignment of submicroscopic magnetic moments from their natural state and that the application of a magnetic field allows for a physiological alignment of order and coherence in atoms and molecules [5]. It has been recognized from space flights that exposure to the earth's magnetic field plays an essential role in our good health; a fact strongly confirmed when the first astronauts returned to earth unwell. Their illness was associated with a lack of magnetism in the outer space and the problem was afterward resolved when NASA placed permanent magnets in spaceships and their space suits [6][7].

 

The developments of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in more recent years have given more knowledge about the interaction of magnetic field with the human body. In MRI technique the body is exposed to magnetic fields of the order of 1-2 Tesla. However, the optimum magnetic field strength is little known and this is complicated by the fact that different cells appear to have different thresholds of reaction to magnetic fields. But experience and work of researchers with magnets in Japan, concluded that magnets need to exceed 500 gauss strength in order to be effective on the human body [5].

 

Perhaps the main reason why magneto therapy was not popular in the past is the presence of materials with relatively low magnetic strength for weight ratios of ferrite-based magnets. The advent of boron/neodymium/iron magnets in the 1980s allowed for high magnetic field to making therapeutic devices significantly more portable and practical [5]. They also have the advantage of keeping their magnetism for long times. The most favorable outcome treatment duration is also not established. However, positive results have been obtained from 45 minutes to 24 hours. No adverse effects on human health have been observed with static magnets up to 2 Tesla [5].

 

Magnetic fields can also to be applied to alter rate of chemical reactions and in some cases can enhance standard drug treatments implying a decrease in dose input in the latter. However, it is recommended that magnets should be avoided in those who have metal implants, in pacemaker wearers or who wear insulin syringe drivers [5].

 

Application of Static Magnetic Field                                                                                                                                                                                One of the emerging techniques for tumors and cancer cells therapy is the application of magnetic fields. Cancer is often initiated by uncontrolled division in a single abnormal cell in different tissues of lung, brain, breast and etc. Especially, breast cancer as the most common malignancy in women leads to many death worldwide annually. However, conventional breast cancer treatment methods like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery and etc. are suffered from high side effects and low efficiency. Magnetic field (MF) can penetrate into the living organisms and influence their biological and electro-biochemical systems. Researchers have investigated the potential effects of homogenous static magnetic field (SMF) on proliferation rate of cancer cells. Results indicated that SMF decreased the cell viability as well as the proliferation rate of some cancer cells [8]. It was shown that a combination of 10mT SMF and 0.1 M Doxorubicin decreased the viability and proliferation rate of cancer and normal cells in a synergetic manner (see figure2) [8].

 

Figure2. The cell viability results of (a) MCF-7 and (b) HFF cells exposed with SMF at different intensities for two exposure times. Significant differences relative to unexposed cells (sham) are shown [8].

 

It can be seen that treatments with multiple-agent as used in combination of physical (radiations, MF) and chemical (drugs) agents could increase the antitumor efficacy and decrease the drug-resistance in tumors

 

Current evidence suggests that cell proliferation can be influenced by a treatment with both SMFs and anticancer drugs. It has been recently found that SMFs can enhance the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic drugs; this may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy. Living organisms are continuously exposed to the natural geomagnetic field of around 20–70 𝜇T that exists over the surface of the Earth and which is implicated in the orientation and migration of certain animal species [9][10].

 

In order to explain the biological effects of SMFs, SMFs are classified as weak (<1mT), moderate (1mT to 1 T), strong (1–5 T), and ultra-strong (>5 T). However, there are four SMF parameters relevant for the interaction with a biological system: (1) target Tissue, (2) magnet characteristics, (3) magnet support device, and (4) dosing regimen. It can be said that the SMFs are difficult to shield and can penetrate biological tissues freely. However, beside the field intensity, the gradient of the field has also an important role in biological effects of SMF. SMF can interact directly with moving charged particles such as proteins, ions and magnetic materials found in tissues through several physical mechanisms [9][10].

 

Many researchers have observed the effects of SMFs on tumor cells, particularly the inhibiting effects. They have used SMF as an entry point for investigating biological effects. In order to reduce the toxicity and resistance of single anticancer drugs, a variety of unified treatments were required. However much the combined effect of magnetic fields and anticancer drugs was one of the practical procedures that make available for use a new strategy for the successful treatment of cancer [9][10].

 

Other emerging technique is based on the interruption of cell multiplication by oscillating electric fields.

 

The most leading problem of any cancer treatment is the demand for the complete breaking up of all cancer cells in such a way that cannot be repaired. This can be explained as that the gcritical massh from where a cancer can grow is not much more than100 cells [11]. Even in surgery, such a small number of cells can easily escape through the bloodstream into other portions of the body, initiating there a metastatic forming a physically connected structure [11].

 

It can be stated that finding a comprehensive cancer treatment solution requires the use of the experience and knowledge of physicists and engineers. However, it has been reported recently by a research group [11] that an oscillating electric field can deactivate cell multiplication during mitosis. To boost this effect it was proposed that cancer can be dealt with by the combination of intense ultrasound waves with a strong magnetic field [11].

 

Since the electrical conductivity of tissue is somewhat low, the magnetic field is not frozen into the tissue, it oscillates against the tissue which is brought into rapid oscillation by the ultrasound [11]. As a result, a rapidly oscillating electric field is induced in the tissue, strong enough to deactivate cancer cell replication. On the other hand, ultrasound can be easily focused onto the regions to be treated [11].  Due of these combined effects of magnetic fields with ultrasound waves, it was suggested that, this method has the potential for complete destruction of the tumors [11].

 

If placed in a strong magnetic field B the ultrasound makes the tissue oscillate against the magnetic field inducing in the tissue an electric field [11]:

 

E = (1/c) v ~ B                                              (1)

 

Where v is the velocity of oscillation and c is the velocity of light. E is electric field measured in electrostatic units. (See [11] for explanation of equation (1))

 

Elemental Concentration in Normal and Malignant Breast Tissue:

The effects of trace elements are related to concentration and recorded observations range from functioning as biologically essential elements, a deficiency state, and to an unbalanced when surplus of some elements intervene with the function of others. The air, drinking water and food are the natural resources of trace elements which can activate or inhibit enzymes and for binding sites or disturbing the cell membrane permeability. However, trace elements play a direct or indirect role on the carcinogenic routes [12]. Too much trace elements formation in the body can be poisonous and carcinogenic. For those elements considered to be essential, it is thought that their concentration is held constant in living species by a homeostatic mechanism. This is reflected by some narrow-ranged elemental concentrations in human blood, e.g. sodium, potassium, chlorine. However, the normal levels of the trace elements are essential to the human internal stability balance. Therefore, trace elements determination is important for their main role in the biochemical and physiological processes.

 

The latest investigations discovered the relationship between the trace elements and cancer, some of them inducing the toxicity effect during the production of free radicals and acting as cofactors in oxidative destruction of the macromolecules and DNA [12]. The exact role of the serum trace elements levels in breast cancer are still lacking. The exact mechanism of tumor formation is uncertain. In addition, the metabolic and micro-environmental factors which are responsible of the tumors formation are convoluted and not well known [12]. The purpose of this study is to consider the trace elements from the standpoint of both their role in carcinogenesis and the possible use of their evaluation in biological fluids as a diagnostic tool and to explore the possible connection of trace elements with breast cancer [12].

 

In such cases, it is possible to benefit from the applications of the magnetic field combined with ultrasound waves to treat the imbalance of the trace elements in cancer cells with the neighboring regions. This type of study requires knowledge of the magnetic properties of the trace elements in breast cancer cells. In the presence of gradients, static magnetic fields produce a net translational force on both diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials. The direction of the force is the same as or opposite to the gradient of the field for paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, respectively. However, the optimum magnetic field strength is unknown and this is complicated by the fact that different cells or cellular components seem to have different thresholds of response to magnetic fields.

 

Such a study can be demonstrated with the research work done by [13]. In this work eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were collected from mastectomy operations on patients of confirmed breast cancer diagnosis. Confirmed malignant samples were taken from tumor lumps while normal samples were obtained from region of the breast defined by the safety margin (distantly far from the lump) from the same patient. Table1 shows the results of the neutron activation analysis for the trace elements concentration in normal and malignant breast cancer tissue [13].

 

  Table1: Neutron activation analysis for elemental concentration in normal and malignant breast tissue  (1 ppm is equivalent to 1 µg/g) [13].

Element

(ppm)

Element

(ppm)

Na  (malignant)

4947.099}3.46

Se (malignant)

0.668}0.239

Na (normal)

3406.224}3.77

Se (normal)

0.354}0.130

Cl (malignant)

7340.272}9.37

Zn (malignant)

35.509}9.750

Cl  (normal)

3855.634}4.12

Zn (normal)

26.880}3.820

K (malignant)

3488.079}6.44

Cr (malignant)

0.663}0.230

K (normal)

2403.975}7.73

Cr (normal)

0.246}0.050

Al (malignant)

13.812}0.208

Cs (malignant)

0.0161}0.0003

Al (normal)

6.505}0.208

Cs (normal)

0.009}0.0004

Mn (malignant)

1.325}0.11

Rb (malignant)

2.505}0.059

Mn (normal)

0.552}0.059

Rb (normal)

2.037}0.08

Mg (malignant)

176.224}14.7

Sc (malignant)

0.003}0.00002

Mg (normal)

11.942}3.96

Sc (normal)

0.003}0.00006

Co (malignant)

0.0156}00.0002

Fe (malignant)

66.099}12.790

Co (normal)

0.0141}0.00005

Fe (normal)

57.920}7.230

 

As can be seen in table1, there is a convergence in the concentrations of some elements in the carcinogenic and normal areas such as (Co, Cs, Rb, Sc and to some extent Fe, Cr and Sc).

Perhaps we can study the concentrations of other elements, which show a marked difference in the concentrations of carcinogenic regions compared to normal areas.

 

Table2, shows some of the elements that have high concentrations in carcinogenic regions such as (Na, Cl, K, Al). Of course, the question posed now is why the concentration of some elements in carcinogenic areas is higher than in normal areas, and the second question is what type of interaction that leads to the presence of high concentrations of some elements in carcinogenic areas than others.

 

Of course, there is no direct answer yet, but we can grope some ways in an attempt to reach a deep understanding of these questions by asking other questions, which are whether the occurrence of tumors is caused by biological, physical, or chemical, or lunch and water, or external causes on earth or space. Table2 also shows that these elements have magnetic properties (paramagnetic, diamagnetic, and magnetic susceptibility). Diamagnetic atoms repel magnetic fields. The unpaired electrons of paramagnetic atoms realign in response to external magnetic fields and are therefore attracted [14]. Magnetic susceptibility is a measure of how much a material will become magnetized in an applied magnetic field. It is the ratio of magnetization M (magnetic moment per unit volume) to the applied magnetizing field intensity H.

 

Table2. Elements have high concentrations in carcinogenic regions [15-17].

Element

Magnetic Type

Mass Magnetic Susceptibility m3/Kg

Na

Paramagnetic

8.8~10-9

Cl

Diamagnetic

-7.2~10-9

K

Paramagnetic

6.7~10-9

Al

Paramagnetic

7.8~10-9

Mg

Paramagnetic

6.9~10-9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calculations of magnetic energy stored in para-dia magnetic elements can be found elsewhere [10]. Table3, shows the magnetic interaction energy to the thermal vibration energy ratio for these elements.

 

Table3.  Ratio of Magnetic energy stored in para-dia magnetic elements  (due to earthfs   magnetic field) with thermal energy

 

Element

Magnetic energy stored E(J)

E/kT

Na (malignant)

1.5x10-30

3.75x10-10

Na (normal)

1.0x10-30

2.5x10-10

Cl (malignant)

-1.8x10-30

-4.5x10-10

Cl  (normal)

-9.6x10-31

-2.4x10-10

K (malignant)

8.1x10-31

2.0x10-10

K (normal)

5.6x10-31

1.4x10-10

Al (malignant)

3.7x10-33

9.3x10-13

Al (normal)

7.0x10-34

1.8x10-13

Mg(malignant)

4.2x10-32

1.1x10-11

Mg (normal)

2.9x10-33

7.3x10-13

 

It can be seen from table3, that the earthfs magnetic field has no effects on the thermal vibrations of these elements. This is due to the fact that thermal energy randomizes electron spin orientations [14]. However, calculations have shown that such effects can be raised from increasing the strength of the magnetic field, greater than 2T.

 

The importance of magnetic field applications in biomangetism lies in the following: (i) the body is transparent to a magnetic field. This implies that the field does not gattachh itself to the body but will interact at the atomic level. (ii) At the atomic and subatomic levels, particles are in motion and magnet fields internal and external to the body are constantly interacting with the body.(iii) Our entire biology is based upon the earthfs magnetic field. When the magnetic field is blocked for any length of time, biological systems begin to degrade [18]. It can also be seen that, In a strong magnetic field, atoms and molecules are squeezed and become anisotropic. In such cases, molecules will reflect orientational atomic changes and this leads to new bonding mechanisms [19]. Figure3 shows a representation for such an effect [19]

 

 

                   

 

 

 

 

 

Figure3. In a strong magnetic field, atoms and molecules are squeezed.

Transversal size is   and longitudinal size    [19].

 

 

It was suggested that magnets can depolarize cancer cells before becoming metastatic. This approach may have been successful in those clinical cases that have responded to magnetic therapy [20]. The magnetic pole used must be negative. The field should be greater than 25 gauss. Success rate increases if both the gauss and duration are increased. A minimal duration of 20 hours per day for no less than three months is required in most cases [20].  Since cancer cells form their energy by making ATP in an acid anaerobic environment, which is termed acid hypoxia, the therapeutic effect of the magnet negative pole is the production of alkaline hyperoxia (abundance of oxygen) [20]. Other application of magnetic fields has been shown that when a constant magnetic field is superimposed on a dielectric, it decreases its power factor [21].

 

Conclusion:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial uses of static magnetic field for breast cancer treatments. At present time, magnetic fields are being used to treat various health problems. Magnets are used to speed healing after surgery as well as to improve circulation, and to mend and strengthen bones. This approach should be extended to cancer cells treatments. It has been known for some time that the behavior of certain types of biological materials is influenced by magnetic fields. The discovery of magnetic material (deposits of magnetite) in the human brain and the deprivation of earthfs magnetic field in space flight leads to abnormal body functioning may suggest that we are physiologically designed to respond to magnetic fields. It has been postulated that pathological state may result from misalignment of submicroscopic magnetic fields from their natural state and that applying a magnet allows for a physiological re-orientation of order and coherence in molecules.

 

Magnetic fields can alter rate of chemical reactions and in some circumstances can enhance conventional drug treatments necessitating a dose reduction in the latter. It is also recommended that magnets should be avoided in pacemaker wearers and those who have metal implants or who wear insulin syringe drivers. It should be emphasized that data introduced in this paper is not a substitute for diagnosis and treatment by a qualified, licensed professional.

 

References:

 

[1] Williams M, et. al. (2018)., gThe effect of a combination treatment of biomagnetic therapy and a low glycaemic influenced diet on nonfasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic ratsh., Diabetes Manag, 8(3), 074–81

[2] Laakso L, Lutter F, Young C., (2009)., gStatic magnets – what are they and what do they do?h,  Rev Bras Fisioter, São Carlos, v. 13, n. 1, p. 10-23, https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-35552009000100013

[3]http://gn.dronacharya.info/ECE2Dept/Downloads/question_papers/ISem/Engg-Physics/UNIT-II/Dielectric-Magnetic-Properties.pdf

[4] Samir A Hamouda et. al.(2017)., g Magnetic bacteria and their potential applications: A review articleh. Vestnik Mordovskogo universiteta = Mordovia University Bulletin. 1(27):108-122.

[5] https://www.magnopulse.com/wp-content/themes/magnopulse2017/docs/static-magnets-in-medicine-a-review.pdf

[6] https://bodymagnetix.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Healing-with-Magnets-March2017.pdf

[7] Jaakkomal et. al.,(1995), gPrinciples and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fieldsh., New York Oxford, Oxford University Press.

[8] Behnam Hajipour Verdom, Parviz Abdolmaleki and Mehrdad Behmanesh., (2018),h The Static Magnetic Field Remotely Boosts the Efficiency of Doxorubicin through Modulating ROS Behaviorsh., SCIenTIFIC REPOrTS

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-19247-8.pdf?proof=true

[9] Soumaya Ghodbane, Aida Lahbib, Mohsen Sakly, and Hafedh Abdelmelek., (2013)., gBioeffects of Static Magnetic Fields: Oxidative Stress, Genotoxic Effects, and Cancer Studiesh., BioMed Research International

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/602987/

[10] Samir A Hamouda., et al.(2020), gA New Physics Approach for Understanding the Mechanism of the Human Brainh, Pellam Journal of Science and Medicine. http://www.bwwsociety.org/journal/science/archive/2019/a-new-physics-approach-for-understanding-mechanisms-human-brain.htm

[11] Friedwardt Winterberg., (2010)., gOn the Disruption of Cell Multiplication by Oscillating Electric Fieldsh., Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen , http://www.znaturforsch.com/s65c/s65c0307.pdf

[12] Safaa Sabri Najim., (2017)., gDetermination of Some Trace Elements in Breast Cancer Serum by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopyh., International Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 9, No. 1 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education             

[13] Ammar Mubark Ebrahim, (2006),h Study of Selected Trace Elements in Cancerous and Non-Cancerous Human Breast Tissues Using Neutron Activation Analysish., Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/38/059/38059170.pdf?r=1 [14]https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/diamagnetism-and-paramagnetism/ [15]https://periodictable.com/Elements/026/data.html   [16]https://periodictable.com/Properties/A/MagneticType.html [17]https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9780470561478.app1 [18]http://www.sld.cu/galerias/pdf/sitios/mednat/magnetos,meridianos_y_medicina_energetica.pdf [19]http://folk.uio.no/helgaker/talks/Budapest_2016.pdf 

[20] http://www.sld.cu/galerias/pdf/sitios/rehabilitacion-fis/biomagnetic_healing..pdf

[21]https://www.nature.com/articles/126059d0.pdf

 

 

 

 

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