Science: Physics/Cosmology:


A Single Finite Universe as Required by

Fr. Stanley Jaki


by Professor Julio A. Gonzalo, U. Autónoma / AECyC, Madrid

Lucía Guerra Menéndez, U. San Pablo CEU

Madrid, Spain


Link for Citation Purposes:




Exact quantitative analytical solutions of Einstein´s cosmological equations for a finite open (KOFL) Universe and a finite flat (LCDM) Universe, result respectively infinite total cosmic masses  and  very large but finite. The first value is obtained with   as given by  (PLANCK, 2013) and  (Gravitational Waves, 2017). This results in  (dimensionless). On the other hand, the second value is obtained with (Supernovae 2016) resulting in which excludes the possibility of an open  Universe. In both cases  (WMAP 2003 / PLANCK 2013) gives the time elapsed between the Big Bang and today. According to Fr. Jaki (in full agreement with Einstein and Lemaitre) the Universe must necessarily be finite on the grounds of logical and metaphysical principles. Alan Guth and others have proposed a flat Inflationary Universe which might be infinite and most theoretical cosmologists today support a flat LCDM Universe and they do not discard the possibility of an infinite self-sufficient Universe among many multiverses.


1. Introduction

As noted recently by Julio A. Gonzalo and Manuel Alfonseca rigorous cosmological work based upon Einstein´s Cosmological Equations gives preference to the LCDM (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) model based substantially in the Inflationary hypothesis of Alan Guth[1]. This model assumes zero space-time curvature () and a non-zero cosmological constant (). In addition to the cosmic density parameter , where is the critical mass density parameter (dimensionless), another important dimensionless cosmic parameter is the product  dependent on the Hubble-Lemaitre ratio . As has been noted previously[2] the value of  determined from the CBR (Cosmic Background Radiation) is significantly different from that determined by Supernovae data2. The value of , time elapsed since the Big Bang to today is very accurately known from NASA’S WMAP satellite data and ESA’S PLANCK satellite data which coincide within less than 1%. On the other hand, recent data on  extracted from the collapse of two distant very massive objects, agrees very well with the CBR value determined by PLANCK’S data, but not with the Supernovae value, as shown below in Table I.







It is very important to note that the compact rigorous[3] solutions of Einstein´s Cosmological Equations for finite KOFL open Universe () lead to




for y going from y = 0 (Big Bang) to  (very distant future), but that for a finite flat Universe () the corresponding solutions of Einstein’s Cosmological Equations lead to




for y going from y = 0 (Big Bang) to  (very distant future)


So  is allowed to be  for an Open Universe and  would imply necessarily a Flat Universe. This appears to be precluded by the  value, in such a good agreement with the value.


It must be noted that the compact rigorous solutions of Einstein’s Cosmological Equations for a flat Universe lead to a finite mass for the Universe only slightly larger than the mass of the open Universe, evidently finite as assumed originally by Einstein and Lemaitre.


I the next section we will examine quantitatively the case for a KOFL Open Universe and for a LCDM Flat Universe , and we will make finally the pertinent concluding remarks, having into account Fr. Jaki’s view on the subject.


2. The case of an Open Universe

Einstein´s cosmological Equations can be summarized3 by




where R is the cosmic radius,  its time derivative, G Newton´s gravitational constant, the mass density (including matter mass and radiation mass), k the space-time curvature, c the speed of light in vacuum , and  the so called

Einstein’s cosmological constant.





In principle k could be k < 0, k = 0, and k > 0. The case of k > 0 (closed universe) may be excluded from further consideration because it requires that  , contrary to the observational evidence.


For an open (k < 0) Universe assuming , something which Einstein did regret not to have done after examining the available observational evidence Eq. (2.1) becomes




We can define




and integrate the nonlinear differential equation3 resulting on






From Eq. (2.4) and Eq. (2.5) we can get directly, having into account that


, the dimensionless product




which allows us to get knowing[4] , and , resulting in




Then we get  from Eq. (2.4) knowing, as we know,  resulting in




Having into account that




and that at  we have  we get



and therefore that




This implies that








The density parameter  , where  and  , which comes out to be , the redshift , and the cosmic background temperature   after decupling, which is fixed[5] accurately using NASA’S COBE satellite data



Table II below gives the evolution of cosmic quantities as we go back in time from the present (z = 0) to protogalaxy formation[6] (z 10) to the time at which


Table II


t (s)


H (s-1)


R (cm)


T (ºK)


Knowing  and  it is possible to determine the total mass of the open universe () as



which, of course, is very large but finite. This value is reasonable, since we know that there are about 1011 galaxies each with about 1011 stars in the universe. The average mass of a typical star would be then about 1032 g, not far from the mass of the sun, .



 3. The case of a Flat Universe with Λ > 0

In this case Einstein’s Cosmological Equations reduce to




which has compact solutions2 given by






From Eq. (3.2) and Eq. (3.3) we get the pertinent dimensionless product




and using now , and again , we get



Then we can get    from Eq. (3.2) for  , resulting in




which  implies , and taking into account that for  




where  , we finally get



The present radius of this flat universe is then




The density parameter is again , the redshift is , and the cosmic background temperature is again , after decoupling, with .  


Table III gives the evolution of cosmic quantities going back form the present (z = 0), but, since zSch = 0.5341 is less than  for protogalaxy formation, no room for such formation is allowed in a LCDM flat Universe according to the previous analysis. Decoupling (atom formation) takes place in a flat universe at a temperature close to 2000 ºK.


Table III


t (s)


H (s-1)


R (cm)


T (K)


The total mass of the flat universe  can be determined from




which is not very dissimilar to M for an open universe as given by Eq. (2.12), and if very large, but finite.





4. Concluding remarks

Finally let us say that the most accurate observational values of t0 and H0 as given by the CBR and Gravitational Waves favour finite Open Universe with F while Ho from Supernova favour a finite Flat Universe with k = 0 F which implies a maximum redshift Zm = 0,534 < Z pg (observed from protogalactic quasars) = 10.


We can conclude with an extensive quotation of Fr. Jaki at the end of his “Postscript” to the 2nd ed. ff “God and the cosmologists”[7]:


“It therefore remains largely a matter of intellectual courage to stand up for the validity of the ontological sense of the question, “why such and not something else?” as it is posed by any finite (underlined by JAG) thing, be that thing the Universe itself. It takes even greater courage, although it should seem a mere matter of logic, to vindicate the mind`s rights to a truly satisfactory answer posed by any finite existent, which the Universe certainly is. The Universe if finite at least in the sense of being restricted to a very narrow set of parameters. Not all that is conceivable does exist. Curiosity about this fact in the ontological sense is what evokes God, the Ultimate being in intelligibility, anywhere but especially within the framework of cosmology or the study of the Universe, which is supposed to be the All, a coherent Totality. Devotees of incoherence have not legitimate place in science, let alone in the science of cosmology as long as –logy is tied to logic, and the latter to logos, and cosmos stands for a coherent all and not for a scientific fad. The All is the Universe, writ large. Not being necessarily what it is, such Universe remains a stubbornly vivid pointer to God. He is the only explanation why the All is not a glorified chaos but a cosmos which cosmologists, though they cannot create anything by any stretch of imagination, are specially privileged to investigate”.

March 1998 S.L.I.


We have seen in this work presented here to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Fr. Jaki´s death that, from a rigorous astrophysical perspective, the data obtained by first class contemporary experimentalist measuring gravitons ejected by a distant colliding pair of Newton star support a value for the Hubble-Lemaitre parameter consistent with a finite Universe in agreement with as well as with no others than Einstein and Lemaitre, as well as with Fr. Jaki.


[1] Alan Guth, “The Inflationary Universe” (Perseus Books: Cambridge Massachusetts, 1977).

[2] See f.i. Julio A. Gonzalo, “Cosmic Paradoxes” 2nd ed. (World Sci.: Singapore 2017) and references there in.

[3] Julio A. Gonzalo, Ibídem Chap. 11, pp. 9-76.

[4] See f.i.D. Holz, S. Hughes and B. Schutz, “Physics Today” December 2018, Vo. 71, num. 12 pp 34-40 and references therein.

[5] Julio A. Gonzalo, “The Intelligible Universe: An Overview of the Last Thirteen Billion Years” (Word Sci.: Singapore, 2008) and references therein.

[6] Joseph Silk, “The Big bang”, 3rd. ed. (W. H. Freeman and Company: New York 2001) and references therein.

[7] S.L. Jaki, “God and the Cosmologists” (Real View Books: P.O. Box 1793, Fraser, Michigan, 48048) p. 271.



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