The Physiology of Transport Substances in the Blood (Sodium)


By Professor Marcel Uluitu, M.D. Ph.D.

Spiru Haret University

Bucharest, Romania


Co-Authored by Diana Popa (Uluitu), M.D.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA


[Editor’s Note: This paper is presented as the Sixth and final installment of a series of chapters from the new book “The Physiology of Transport Substances in the Blood (Sodium)”; preceeding chapters were featured in recent past issues of this Journal. This final segment features the Summary and Bibliography]





The understanding of any phenomenon requires its quantification and of the factors involved. To this must be added the observance of the conditions under which the process takes place.
During the study there has been mentioned the complexity of the chemical composition of blood and its heterogenous character.


Substances in the blood are permanently in interaction between them.The intensity of interactions is variable, generally with small energy. Interactions take place between "transported" and "transporter" substances, which define the terms of some blood components.


Stress is laid on the role of physico-chemical links between components, mainly by emphasizing the mechanisms involving inorganic ions, including Na, menţioned at large. These interactions especialy maintain under control free active forms of the substance transported, by virtue of the law mass action.

For defining the conditions in which the sodium is, this study achieves a brief overview of a partitioning of the body into three compartments, which however differentiated, have identical interaction processes between their constituents. Vascular, matricial and endocelular compartments thus presented here - even if to various extents - are present in all tissues, systems, organs of the living pluricellular organisms. Chemical processes, physical-chemical, physical and biochemical processes taking place in living organisms conduct the development underlying the fundamental processes of life and physiological mechanisms. The mentioned processes may be subject of such a thorough analysis to enable their integration in the pursuit of physiological  and pathological functions. Until now , investigating the possibilities of the processes in which  Na+ is involved , are burdened  by the lack of a method for determining the cation, in  the biological-biochemical  environment, mainly in the blood. The methods used have mainly dosed the anorganicised Na, the organic compounds being  removed by chemical or physical means. Understanding the role of sodium in the organization and function of beings needs , besides the elementary  analysis of cation, also the  understanding of the interactions with other anionic structure and how they affect the chemical activity of Na+ . In the monography , there is  presented the method of determining the chemical activity of Na+. The method shows the advantage of using reagents that are natural components of blood and require small amounts of biological product. The referencial system  is represented by  serotonin and heparin polianion which interact with a very low energy .The cations which have higher affinity for anionic sites of the heparin  break up or antagonise the interaction between serotonin and polianion heparin. Sodium in an aqueous solution of NaCl is very active to the  serotonin – heparin group , in very small quantities, under those existing in the blood. Na, which is in interaction with other anions, present in solution, is inactive to the reference group, either  by decreasing energy interaction, or by decreasing the available quantity. The monography presentes graphs and tables illustrating the method and others that show that in humans and rats, sodium blood serum is inactive on the reference system serotonin-heparin  , because of its interaction with serum protein. Denaturing them is followed by increase of Na+  and by its ionic activation.


The lack of chemical activity of Na+ (95% of total serum cations) both in humans and in rats , is compatible with the normal excitability level  determined by EEG, mental functions, keeping cardio-circulatory homeostasis to change posture in humans, calm response to auditory stimulation, activity ECG (electrocorticography), normal activity through automatic processing, electrolyte balance within normal limits , recorded under  normal behavior  in rats.

In normal human collectivities and in Wistar rats there are detected some individuals with increased excitability , in which there was also detected  an increased chemical activity of Na. Human subjects have been checked thoroughly to identify and select those with general or psychiatric illnesses, which have formed separate groups. The same parameters were used for the study of excitability as in the case of subjects with absent Na+ chemical activity.  It was found out that Na+ transport in the ionic active chemical state  is accompanied by disturbances of cerebral excitability.


In humans there have been noticed  : (1) constitutional type behavior disturbances , even some of clinical intensity (2) difficulty in installation of the rhythm of rest closing eyes (3) disturbances of concentrated attention and enabling of distributive ones ( 4) adjustment disorders, cardio-circulatory function at the passing to ortostatism expressed in minutes 6-10 from changing posture , through decrease of diastolic blood pressure, as a result of the deficit of humoral adjustment of the  renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-sodium system.


In rats in which Na is transported in ionic form there is noticed: (1) tonus convulsions at auditory stimulation, (2) hypermotricity during free behavior, (3) disturbances of metabolic balance  of Na (preference for saline solution , removal of excessive Na through the kidneys), (4) minralocorticoid system showing a deficit in adult age, with reverse evolution as to the normoexcitable animal at  old age.


Therefore, disturbed excitability exists in both species, in  subjects where the Na+ transport  is made in ionic state, without interaction with the proteins.The monography notes the absence of functional disturbances in both non excitable and autoexcitable structures correlated with mechanism of Na transport in the blood.







            (1) : Abramsom  J  L’enfant  et l’adolescent instables, Press France, Vendome, Paris, 1950          (2) : Ackerman  J.M., Clopham   E. D. Ion channels.Basic Science and clinincal disease. Mechanisms of diseases 1997, 336, 1575-1586.                     

            (3) : Aidley J.D. The phisiology of excitable cells.Cambridge, N.Y., Port chester, Melburne, Sydney.        (4) : Akk  G., Averbach  A.Inorganic monovalent cationswith agonists for the transmitter binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Biophysical J.,1996, 20, 2562-8.     

            (5) : Alberts B.,  C., Bray D., Lewis J., Raff M., Roberts K., Watson D.J. Cell junction, cell adhesion  and extracellular matrix in:Molecular biology of the cell, 3-rd Garland  Publ.Inc.N.Y., London, 1994, cap.19, 971.     (6) : Alzheimer C., Schwindt P.C., Crill W, M.Postnatal developments of a persistent  Nacurrent in piramidal neuronesfrom rat sensory-motor cortex  J.Neurophysiol.1993, 69, 69290 –292.      

            (7) :Androgue J.H., Madias E.N.Hypernatremia.Primary care. 2000, 342, 1493 – 1499.     

            (8) :Androgue J.H., Madias E.N.Hyponatremia Primare care 2000, 342, 1581 –1589.        

            (9) :Ayala  Y., Di Cera E.Molecular recognition by the trombin.Role of the slow-fast component. 1994, 235, 733 – 746

            (10):Ballhausen J.C.Introduction  to ligand theory, 1962, McGrew  Hall BrackComp.Inc.

(11):Barchi L.R. Biochemistry of sogium channels from mamals muscle, in Kao y.c., levinson s.r.Eds..Tetrdoxin  and sxotoxin and the molecular biologyof tha Nachannels, 1986, 479, 355 –3Bull B.H.64.  

(12) :Bădilescu i.i., Bădilescu Simona. Legătura de hidrogen, 1961 Bucureşti, Ed.Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică.

(13) :Benetato Gr., Oprean O., Contribuţii la studiul steniei animalelor suprarenoprive, Clujul medical 1936, 3,  1-21.

(14) :Benetato Gr.,  Uluitu M., Petec Gh.The influence of old age on the physicochemical state of cereral proteins in the rat :Rev.Roum.Physiol. 1971, 8, 199 – 208.

(15) :Benetato Gr., Uluitu M., Petec Gh., Benetato V., Vrîncianu R., Gardev Maria., The effect of stimulation on the physicochemical properties (solubility, ionization and buffer capacity) of soluble cytoplasmic proteins in the brain, Rev.Roum.Physiol, 1968,  5, 169 – 185.

(16) :Benetato Gr., uluitu M., Petec Gh., Bubuianu Elena,  Petrescu Aurelia. extracellular distribution of potassium  in trems  of variation of  the disociation constant of carboxylic groups in the cytoplasmic proteins of the cerebral cortex.Rev.Roum. Physiol. 1970,  7,  95 – 106.

(17)Benetato V.:Sângele, in Benetato Gr.(Ed)_Elemente de fiziologie normală şi patologică, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală,  1962, pg.262.

(18) :Benos J.D., Fuller M.C., Shlogonsky G.V., Berdiev K.B., Ismailov I.I.Amiloride – sensitive

Nachannels insight and outlooks :News physiol.sci            1997,  12,  55 –61

            (19) :Bergquist J., Bergquist S., Axelsson  R., Ekman R.Demonstration of immunoglobulin G with affinityfor dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid from psychiatric patients :Clin.chim.acta 1993,  217, 129 – 142.

            (20) :Bergstrom J., Hultman  Normal plasma sodium values. Lancet, 1962, 1,  1132 – 1134.

            (21) :Betz L.A.Sodium transport in capillaries izolated frm rat brain. J.Neurochem  1983, 41,  1150-57.

            (22) :Betz L.A.Sodium transport  from blood to brain :inhibitors by furosemid and amilorid. J.Neurochem 1983,  41,  1158-1164.

            (23)Bistriceanu MTransportul plasmatic al testosteronului.în Teodorescu-aexarcu I.(Ed)Fiziologia şi fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed Medicaă.1989, pg.942.

            (24) :Bonţilă G.C.Aptitudinele şi măsurarea lor.Centrul de Documentare şi Publicaţii al Ministerului Muncii, Bucureşti, 1971.         

            (25) Borel J.P., Monboisse J.C.Les collagenes pouquoi une telle complexite structurale: C R.Soc.Biol.1993, 187,  124 – 142.

            (26) :Brudaşcă Ioana, Cucuianu M.:Metabolismul calciului, fosforului şi magneziului  in Cucuianu M., Crâsnic I., Pleşca-Manea Luminiţa (Eds).Biochimia clinică, Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca,, 1998, 265-291.

            (27) :Bull B.H., Breese K.:Binding of water and electrolytes in protein.An equilibrium dialysis study. Bipolimers, 1976,  15,  1573 –1583.

            (28) :Bullock H.T.:A comparative neurologist’s vies of signals and signs in the nervous system, in Szakaly G., Labos E (Eds) Adv.Physiol Sci.vol.30, Neural Comunucation and control.1980,  pg.1 – 8.

            (29) :Cadwell H.J.Distributionof sodium in chnnals in muscle, inKao C.Y., Levinson S.R.: (Eds)Tetrodotoxin,  saxitoxin and the molecular biology of the sodium channals Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1986 vol  479,  364 –376.

            (30) :Catterall A.W., Schmidt W.J., Messner J.B., Feller J.D.:Structure and biosynthesis of neuronal of sodium channals  in Kao  C.Y., Levinson  S.R.:(Eds) :Tetrodoxin,  saxitoxin  and the molecular biology of the sodium channals.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1986 vol.479,

            (31) :Chien Sh., Shyy Y._Mechanisms  of mecano –chemical transduction in vascular cells, in Fukuuda

Y., Tomita M., Kato A. (Eds).Ischemic blood flow in the brain, Keyo Univ. Symposiumfor life scince  and medicine. Springer.2001, 13-19.

            (32) :Chirles –Michel C.The roleof the endothelial surface coat in microvascular permeability  in Fukuuda Y, Tomita M., Kato A(Eds) Ischemic blood flow in the brain, Keyo Univ.Sympposiumfor life science  and medicine. Springer, 2001, 39 –46.

            (33) :Cier  J.F.:Les facteurs me’tabolique  et hormoneaux de la re’partition de sodium er potassium. Physiol (Paris) 1961, 53, 3-25.

            (34) :Ciran M.M.:Intracellular activities of sodium and potassium-Amer J.Physiol.1970, 234, F621 –F269.

            (35) :Coculescu M., Budoi Adina-Mariana. Alţi factori de creştere diferiţi de sistemul Gh-somatomedine, in Teodorescu-Exarcu I.(Ed) Fiziologia şi fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin Bucureşti, Editura Medicală 1989, 290.

            (36) :Collins D.K.Charge density dependent strenght of hydration and biological structure. Biophysical J, 1997, 72,  65 –63.

            (37) :Connie C.W., Hsia M.D.:Respiratory function of hemoglobine. The New Engl J.Med.1998, 338, 23-29.

            (38) :Convertino V.A.Countermeasures against cardiovascular deconditioning        1994,  1,  125-128.

            (39) :Cristoforo de R., Picozzi M., MorosettiR., Labdorfi R.:Effect of sodium on a energetics trombin-trombomodulin interactionand its relevance for protein C hydrolysis J.Molec.Biol.1996, 258, 190-200.

            (40) :Crosby C, E., Humphrey T., Lauer W.E-:Correlative anatomy of the nervous system The Mac Millan Comp.N.Y.1962.

            (41) :Cubero E., Luquer J.F., Orozco M.:La polarization important in catin -interaction. Proc.Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 1989, 95, 5976-5980.

(42) :Cucuianu M., Crâsnic I:Anomaliile echilibrului hidromineral  în Cucuianu M., Crâsnic I, Pleşca –Manea Luminiţa (Eds).Biochimi clinică.Fundamentare fizipatologică Distribuţia apei în organismul unui bărbat 1998, pg. 324 Cluj- Napoca, Editura Dacia.

(43) :Cucuianu M.Compoziţia în electroliţi ai plasmei comparativ cu  lichidului interstiţial, în Cucuianu M., Cârszea I., Pleşca-Manea Luminiţa (Eds).Biochimie clinică.Fundamentare fiziopatologică.Cluj-Napoca, Editura Dacia, 1998, pg.326.  

(44) :Cummings T.R., Jiang C., Haddad G.G.Human neocortical excitability is decresed during anorexia via Na-chemical metabolism J.Cinical Investig.1993, 91, 608-615.

(45) :CussacD., Caccawelli L., Pellegrini L., Audinot V., Jaquet P.,  Enjalbert A. Recepteurs membranaire et proteines  de couplage dans les celluleadenohypophisaire. C.R.Soc Biol. 1993, 187,  14-23.

(46) :Darbon H., Toxines animaleset cannaux ioniques. J.Soc.Biol.1993, 193, 443 – 450.

(47) :Daugherty D.A.Cation --interaction in chemistry and biology :a new view of benzen, Phe., Tyr  and Try science : 1996, 271, 163-168.

(48) :Delpure E.Cation – chloride cotransporers neuronal communications.New physil.sci  2000 15,  309-312. 

            (49) :DelZopo J.G., Abumiyo T.,  Copeland B., Hamann F.G., Heo H.J., Hasomi N., Lucero J., Okada Y.Tagaya M., Wagner S.Microvascular natrix responses to focal cerebral ischemia are rapid and reflect neuron. injury, in Fukuuda Y., Tomita M., Kato A.,  Keyo Univ.Symposiumfor life science and medicine, Springer –Verlag, 2001, 151-156.

            (50) :Danielson G.Bo, The distribution of some electrolytes in the heart :Acta phxsiol.scand. 1964, vol.62, suppl.236

            (51) :Diamond M.J., Wright M.E., Biological membranes. The physical basis  of ions and nonelectrolyte selectivity Annual rev. physiol.1969, 31, 581-646.

            (52) :Dinu Viorica, Truţia E., Popa-Cristea Elena, Popescu Aurora. Biochimie medicală, Editura medicală, 1996, Bucureşti.

            (53) :Dumitrache C.Circulaţia şi legarea hormonilor cortico-suprarenaliin Teodorescu Exarcu I.(Ed)Fiziologia şi fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin, Ed.Medicală, Bucureşti 1989, pg.678-679.

            (54) :Eccles R., MacLean A.G.The influence of an extraneuronal compartment of the releasion  of the cat nictitating membrane in vivo. Brit.J.Pharmacol. 1978, 62, 563-566.

            (55) :Eddy A.A.Na-cotransport sysrem and the membrane potential differences, in Semenza G., Kinn R. (Eds) Annals of the New York Acad. dci, 1985, vol.456,  Membrane transport driven by iongradients 51-62.

            (56) : Falkenhagen H., Ebeling W.Equilibrium properties of ionised dilute electrolytes in Petrucci S.(Ed)

 Ionic interactions vol.I Equillibrium and mass transport Acad Press N.Y.London,  1971, pg.2.  57.

            (57) :Falkenhagen H., Ebeling W., Kraft D.W.Mass transport properties of ionized dilute electrolytes in Petrucci  S.(Ed)Ionic interaction vol I Equillibrium and mass transportAcad Press N.Y, London. 1971, 62-115-

            (58) : Faure H., Favier A.:Specific techniquesfor determinationof bound and free metal ions in biological fluids in Berthon G.(Ed)Handbook of metal-ligand interaction of biological fluids.Bioanorganic chemistry 1995, vol.II pg.1163 –1169.

            (59) :Forbes R.W.Stern C.  W., Tracy A.C.Resnick O., Morgan J.P Effect of chronic protein malnutrition on experimentally induced seizures in the rat. Experimental neurology, 1978, 62, 475 – 481.

            (60) :Forbes R.W., Tracy A.C., Resnick O., Morgan J.P.Effect of maternal dietary protein restriction growth  of the brain and body in the rat. Brain Res.Bulletin, 1977,  2,  131-135.

            (61)Friedman J.E. Haddad G.G.Removal of extracellular sodium prevents anoxia – induced injury in freshly disociated rat CAI hypocampal neurones. Brain Res.1994,  641,  57-64.

            (62) :Frindt G., Silver R.B., Windhager E.E., Palmer I.G.Feedback regulation of Nachannels in rat CCT Effect of inhibition of Naentry. Amer.J.Physiol.1993, 264, 565-574.

            (63) :Frolkis V.V., Verkhratsky N.S., Iagdich I.V. Regulation of aldosteron secretion in old rat Gerontology, 1965,  31,  84-94.

            (64) :Gachtgens P., Pries R.A.Role  of endotelial surface coatim microvessel blood flow, in Fkuuda y, Tomita M., Kato A.(Eds)Ischemic blood flow in the brain. Keyo Univ.Symposium for the life sci. and

medicine.Springer-Verlag, 2001,  pg.25-32.

            (65) : Gapeer A., Dubar B:C.Cation --interactions and th.phase thermochemistry of the Na/phenilalanine complex :J.Amer.Chem.Soc.2001, 123, 8360-8365. 

            (66) :Garrone B., Exposito J.Y., FrancJ.M., Franc S., Humbert-David N., Qin L., Tillet E.La filogenese de la matrix extracellulaire. C:R.Soc. Biol. 1993,  187,  114-123.

            (67)  :Gennary F.J. The hypokalemia :The New England  J.Med. 1998,  339,  451-458.

            (68) : Giese  A.Cell Physiology, 3-rd, Edition, 1969W.B.Saunders Comp.

            (69) :Giraudet P.Coudon B.,  PastelP., Alexandre J:A.Concept of interet clinique des prophyls proteiques.Med. et hyg.1995,  53,  982-986.

            (70) :Glynn I.M.Water and electrolytes metabolism, in Stewart C.P., (ed) Elsevier Publsh  Comp.Amsterdam, London, N.Y. 1961.

            (71) :Gottfried S.S.Biology today, Moby-Year book Inc.1993.

            (72) :Gottschalk E.R., Graham B.The bazic structure of glycoproteins, in Neurath H (Ed) The proteins, 1966,  vol IV,  96-145.

            (73) :Graaf Van de M.K., Fox I.S.Anatomy and physiology 5-th Ed.W.S.Brown Publsh Bogota, London, Buenos Aires 1995, pg.348-352.

            (74) :Grant A.G., Abbott N.J., Janigro D.Understanding the physiologyof the blood brain barrier :in vitro models. New Physiol.Sci.1998,  vol.13, pg.287-293.

            (75) :Green K.,  Hastings Barbara, Friedman H.M. Sodium binding in isolated corneal stroma. Amer.J. Physiol.1971, 220, 520-525.

            (76) :Grigoriev A.I., Noskov V.B., Atkov O.I.Afonin B.V., Sukhanov  I.V., Lebed ev V.I., Boiko Z.A. Status of water, electrolytes homeostasis and the systems hormonal regulation during 237 days space flight. Kosm.Biol Aviascom Med. 1991, 25, 15-18.

            (77) :Grosu L., Rosenfeld Eva. Contribution to the study of capillary permeability for macromolecules. Roum. J.Physiol.1992, 29, 23-31-

            (78) :Guyton C.A.Human physiology and mechanisms of disease 5-th Ed.1992W.B.Saunders Comp., Harcourt, Iovanovich B Inc.Phyladelphya, London, Toronto Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo.

            (79) :Hailing G.E., Ye W., Yang G., Betz I.Increased expression  of intercellular sodium molecule  in mouse local cerebral ischemia model. Chinese Med.J.2000, 113, 76-79.

            (80) :Hamrahian H.A., Oseni T.S., Arafah H.B.Measurements of serum free cortizol in critical illpatients, New Engl.J.Med. 2004, 350, 1629-1638.

            (81) :Harder R.D., Zhang Ch., Gebredmedhin D.Adtrocytes function in matching blood flow to metabolic activity :News in Physiol.Sci.2000, 17, 27-85.

            (82) : Harisberger J.D., Schild L., Physiologie et physiopatologie  de la balance du sodium aport s recents de la genetique et de la biologie moleculaire. Med et Hyg. 1997, 55, 532-539.

            (83) : Harris G.S., Palmer W.A.Effect of increasd sodium ions on arterial sodium and reactivity Clin Sci.1972, 43, 301-309.

            (84) : HayashiT., Take K., Orita Y., Matsumura M.Measurement of Naactivity in endolimph  in guinea pig cochlear with sodium-sensitive glass microelectrodes. Avasaki Med. J.1991, 19, 65-90.

            (85) :Heer M., KroppJ., Maas H.,  Rocker L., Baisch F.Dependence of blood volum changes on oral sodium uptake. The phxsiologist 35, Suppl. S 113-S 114. 1992.

            (86) :Herbinger W., Hubmeyer W.Eine exacte and rasche komplexometrische (triplex IIImerck) serumkalium bestimung. Klin.wochenschr.1960,  38,  822 –830.

            (87) :Herve’F., Ouzilou-Girod J., Scherrmann M.Les cationization, un proce!de! de vectorization des antiorps  dans le system ne!rveux  central. Problemes rencontre’spour son application dans le cadre de strate’gies d’immunoth’erapie come celles de l, intoxications clostridiales.J.Soc.Biol. 2001,  195.  201-227.

            (88) :HillA.K.., Castellino J.F.The effect of monovalent cations on the presteady state reactionkinetics of bovine activated plasma protein C and des-1-4 light chain activated plasma protein C.  J.Biol.Chem.1987, 262, 140-146.

            (89) :Hirofurni L., Yovichi T., Macoto A., Masaru M.Mechanical stretch increasis intracellular Naconcentration in cultured rat reticular cells. Jap.Circ.J.1994, 56, 284-291.

            (90) :Holban I.Metodologia dignosticului psiho-pedagogic. Iaşi.  1971,  3,  4.

            (91) :Hood L.V.Iannen L.R.  Protection of acido baze reaction balance by regulation of acid production. The New Engl.J.Med.1998,  339,  819-826.

            (92) :Hrdina D.P. General principles of receptor binding, in Boulton A.A., Barter B.G., Hrdina D.P.(Eds)Neurochemistry Neuromethod. Receptor binding. Humana Press, Clifton, N.Jersey, 1986, pg.1-22.

            (93) :Hu J., Barbour J.I., Gakel W.G., Probing alcali- metal - interaction with the side chain rezidue tryptophan. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA)2002,  99,  5121-5126.

            (94) :Iacobaş D.A.Ideas and methods  in the physics of living. Tillia Press Internat. 1993.

            (95) :Iohanssen B.L.Hemodilution and Natriuresis of intravascular volum expansion, Danish Medical Bulletin,  2000, 47,  283 – 295.

            (96) :Iohansson  B.B. Blood  brain barrier. Role of brain endothelial surface  charge glicocalix. Acta Physiol.Scand. 1980, 61, 33-38..

            (97) :I/ons O. Gamelgaard  O. Experimental techniques   for metal ion analysis in biofluids,  in Barthon G  (Ed) Handbook of metal-ligand  interaction in biological  fluids Bioanorganic chemistry vol 2, 1995, pg.1119-1944.,

            (98) :Iorgensen O.S.Hennricson R., Kromp P., Rafaelson O.J. Blood brain barrier selectivity and synaptic turnover during delirium tremens and related clinical states. A studyof brain and blood protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, Acta Psychiatrica Scand.1980,  61,  356-364.                                                                         

(99) : Irmisch G., Wichert P., Hossler  F., Langemann I. Hyperkinetic sindrom and the metabolism under psychic stress comparisons of tryglicerides, total cholesterol, phospholiptdes and lipase , in blood serum of hyperkinetic and normal children. Neurosciences, 1993, 19, 131-136. 

            (100) :Jessel M.I. Reaction of neuron to injury, in Kandell R.E., Schwartz N.Y., Jessel M.  I.(Eds)Principles neural science  3rd  Ed Prentice –Hales Intern Inc pg 258-269.

            (101) :Jessel M.I.Neuronal survival and synapse formation, in Kandell R.E., Schwartz N.Y., Jessel M.I., (Eds) Principles neural science 1991,  3rd Ed.Prentice –Hales 

            (102)Joly M.Les differents  niveaux d’interactive mole’culaire dans le milieux vivants. J.franc. Biophys et  Me’d, 1977,  1,  45,  52.

            (103) :Jost W. Diffusion in solids-liquids, gases. Acad.Press Inc Publ., New York.1960, pg.42.  

            (104)Kandell R.E.:Brain and behavior, in Kandell R.E., Schwartz H.J., Jessel M.I. (Eds), Principles of neural science 3rd Ed Prentice –Hales Intern. Inc 1991,. pg. 8 - 10.

            (105) :Kandell R.E.:Nerve cells and behavior, in Kandell R.E., Schwartz H.I., Jessel M.I. (Eds) Principles of neural science, 3rd, Ed.Prentice –Hales Intern,

            (106) :Kanner I.B., Radian Rodica Ion coupled neurotransmiter transport across the synaptic plasma membrane,  in Semenza G., Kinne R., (eds) Membrane transport driven by ion gradients 1985, Annals of the N.Y.Academy sci. 456, 153-162.

            (107) :Kao Y.C.Structure-activity relations of tetrodotpxin, saxitoxin and analogues in Annals of rhe N.Y.Academy of scj.1876, vol.479, pg.52 –68.

            (108) :Keatings W.R.:Flux and electrical activizy of arterial smouth  muscle. J.Physiol.1968, 194, 183-200.

            (109) :Kelly D.J.:The neural basis of perception and movement, in Kandell R.E. Schwartz R.J., Jessel M.I.(Eds) Principles of neural sci. 3rd ed, Prentice-Hales Intern. Inc1991.283-295.

            (110) :Kelly D.J., Dodd J.:Anatomical organization of the nervous system. in Kandell R.E., Schwartz R.J., Jessel M.I.(Eds), Principles of neural sci.3rd ed.Prentice –Hales Intern Inc1991 pg.273-282.

            (111) :Kinoshito S., Finnegan M.,  Bucholz W.R., Mizuno K. :Three-dimensional collagen gel culture promotes osteoblastic phenotype in bone marow derived cells. Kobe J. Medical sci 1999, 45, 201-211.

            (112) :Klotz M.I.Application of the law of massaction in binding by protein interaction with calcium Arch.Biochem.1946, 109 – 117.

            (113) :Koester J.: Voltage-gated ion channels and the generation of the aaction potential. in  Kandell R.E., Schwartz R.I., Jessel M.I. (Eds),  Principles of neural sci. 3rd ed., Prentice –Hales Intern Inc, 1991 pg.106-122.

            (114) :Komendy A.E., Klegman T.R., Eaton D.C.:Aldosteron alters the open probabily amiloride blocable sodium channels in A6 epithelia. Amer J.physiology, 1992,  263, 825-937.

            (115) :Kremer M.P.Perspectives in extracellular matrix research The role of cell culture models in Wang S., WangL.J.(Eds) Extracellular matrix Academic Press, London, Paris, SanDiego, 1982, pg.3 –11.

             (116) :Labot R.J.Glycoproteines de structures et integrines C.R.S.Biol.1993, 187, 181-191.

             (117) :Lahmennkuhler A., Zidek W., Caspers H., :Changes of extracellular Naand Cl.Activity in the brain cortex  during seitures discharges, in Klee R.M.,  Speckman J.E.,  Lux D.A.(Eds)Raven Press, New York, 1982, pg.37-45.

            (118) :LaVilla G., Lazzrei C., Franzaroli C., Franchi F., Gentilini P..II brain natriuretic peptide. Ann.Ital.Med.Int.1995,  10,  233 –241.

(119) :LazdunskiM., Baharin J., Lambet A., Mein H., Pauren D., Pomey G., Schmid A., Schweitz H., Vigne P., Vijverberg P.M.H.Polypeptides toxins as tools to study voltage sensitive Nachannels, in Kao C.Y, Levinson S.R.Tetrotoxin, saxitoxin and the molecular biology of the sodium channels. Annals of the N.Y Acsdemy of asciences, 1986  479, pg.204-220.

(120) :Lecureuil M., Crouzot-Lejeun B.Problemes poses par lutilization des methodes soustractive au cours de letude de liaisons proteine-sbstance en solution Medicine  1, 32.32.

(121) :Leverve X Badetti Ch.:L albumine metabolism, function et relation avec la pathologie Med and Hyg1992, 50, 2548-2557.

 (122) :Levinson S.R., Duch D.S., Urban B.W., Recio-Pinto E.Tha sodium channals from Electrophorus Electricus, in Kao Y.C., Levinson S.R., Annals of N.Y., Academy of Sciences :Tetrodoxin, saxitoxin and the molecular biology of the sodium channals, 1986,, vol.479, pg.162-178.

        (123) :Linderstrom-Lang  K., Lund Ellen. The influence of salt concentration of ehe acid binding capacity of egg albumine. Compte rendu de travaux de la laboratoire des Carlsberg, 1927, 1928,, vol 16, pg.1-55.

        (124) :Liteanu C., Gocan S., Bold Anişoara.Separatologie analitică.Ed Dacia, Cluj Napoca.1981

         (125) :Maas A, H., Siggaard-Anderson O., Weisberg H.F., Zijlstra W.G., Ion selective electrodes  Naand Ka new problem is what is measured  and what should be reportwd. J.Clin. Chem.1985, 31, 282-485.

       (126) :Maes M., Delanghe J., Chiaretto L.P., Biguetti S., Tura G.B., Ptoli R., Zanardin R., Altanuro

                                                                                                                                                       C.H..Haptoglobine polymorphis and schisophrenisis genetic variation on chromosome K.Psichiatric   Res.2001, 104,                                                                                                 1-9                                                                                                                                                                  (127):Magistretti J.P., Pellerin L., Astrocytes couple synaptic activity to glucose utilization in the brainNews physiol.sci, 1999,  14, 177-182..

(128) :Maior O.Noţiuni de biochimie şi biofizică, în Benetato Gr.(Ed)Elemente fiziologie normală şi pstologică 1962, Ed.Medicală, Bucureşti.

        (129)Maquart F.X., Simeon A., Pasco S., Monboisse J.Cl.:Regulatio de l, activite celullaire par matrice extracelullaire: la concept matrakines. J.Soc.Biol. 1999, 193, 423 – 428.

        (130) :Maramotsu T.:Cell surface glycoproteins biochemical, immunological and molecular biological studies. Nagoya J.Med.Sci.:1994, 57, 95-108.

        (131) :Martin M.J., The collective electrical behaviorof cortical neurons. The electroencephalograph and mechanism of epilepsy  in Kandell R.E., Schwartz H.Y., Jessel M.T.(Eds)Principles of neural science 3rd Ed prentice –Hales Internat Inc.1991 pg 777 – 791.

       (132) :Mayer  J.Physiologie humain 2nd ed., Flamarion Medicine science, Paris, 1983.

       (133) :McCormick I.Johnstone M.R.Alkali cations. Freezer thawing and restitution of Na-dependent aminoacid transport activity, in Semeza G., KinneK.(Eds)Membrane transport driven by ion gradient :Annals of the New York Academy Sci., 1985, 456, 4342-4344.

           (134) :Meves H., Simard M.J., Watt D.D.:Interaction of scorpion toxine with the Na-channals.Annals of the N.Y.Acad.Sci., 1986, vol.479, 113-132.

                  (135) :Meyer Ph., Physiologie humaine. Les glandes endocrines, Flamarion, Medicine Science, 1983.

            (136) :Mimram A., Jover B., Casella S.D. Renal adaptation to Na deprivation Effect of captopril in the rat.The Amer.J.Med.1984,  14-20.

            (137) :Mincu I.Pancresul endocrin, in Teodorescu-Exarcu I., Fiziologia şi fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin,, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1989, pg447-612.

            (138) :Mogoş Gh.:Proteinele(fiziologie, fiziopatologie, clinică) Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1964.

            (139) :Mohanty U, mNinham W.B., Oppenheim J.:Dressed polyanionsconterioncondensation and adsorbzionexcess in polyelectrolyte  solution. Proc Natl.Acad.Sci., USA, 1996, 93, 4342- 4344.

            (140) :Morgan J.P., Miller :, Remper T., Stern W., Forbes W., Hall R., Bronzino J., Kissane J., Hawrylewicz E., Resnick K.O.:The effect of protein malnutrition  on the developing central nervous.system in the rat. Neurosciences and behavioral Reviews.1978, 2, 137-229.

            (141) :Mota de Fraitas Duarte Alkali metal nuclear magnetic resonance.Methode in Enzimology, 1993, vol.27, 78-107.

            (142) :Moţoc G.:Structura moleculelor şi activitatea biologică, Timişoara Ed Facla.

            (143) :Nakagawa N., Mori M., Tamaki N., Okada Y.:Nonselective conductance in a xenopos renal epithelial line, J.Med.Sci., 1997, 43, 179-189.

            (144) :Narahashi T.:Toxine rhat modulate the Nachanel gatng mechanism., in Annalsof the N.Y.Acad.Sci., in Kao Y., Levinson S.R.:(Eds), Tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and the molecular biology of the Na channel., 1986, vol.479, 79-86-

             (145) :Năstoiu I.:Bazele metabolice ale medicinii aero-spaţiale (cu aplicaţii în medicină şi biologie )Bucureşti Ed Medicală, 1983.

             (146) :Neştianu V., Fiziologia sistemului nervos, in Benetato Gr.(Ed)Elemente de fiziologie normală şi patologică Vol.II, Bucureşti Ed.Medicală, 1962.

             (147) :Norsk P., Gravitational stress and regulation of  neuroendocrine elements and fluid in humans.The physiologist, 1993, 36, suppl. S1-S4.

             (148) :Nydegger U., Schneider P., Les proteines plasmatiques mirroir biologique  et pathologique Hyg. 1995, 53, 979-981.

             (149) :Ohta K., Indirect UVspectrophtometric detection in the ion chromatography on an aluminium absorbing silicagelcolumn with tiramine –containing crown ethers as eluent.J.chromatography 2000, 884, 112-122.

             (150) :Ohta E., Moricawa  H., Tanaka K., Uryu Y., Paull B., Haddad R P., Ion chromatographic behavior of alcaline earth metal cations on silicagel columns wirh cation exchenge characteristic Analytical.Chimica. Acta.1998, 359, 255-261.

              (151) :Ortiz M.R.;Wade F.C., Water balance in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation,  J.Appl.Physiology 200, 89,  56-60.

              (152) :Padiglia A., Medda R., Lorrai  A.,  Paci M., Pedersen Z.J., Boffe A., Bellelli A., Firazzi A.A., Flori G.G.:Ireversible inhibition of pig kidney copper-containing amino-oxidase by Naand Li ions. Eur. J.Biochem.2001, 268,  4686-4697.

              (153) :Pauling L.Chimie generală Bucureşti, Ed Ştiinţifică 1972.

              (154) :Pearson R.D., Sudin A.H.A simple method for estimating a heparin binding capcity of human serum., Health Lab sci, 1978, 15,  32 –37.

              (155) :Peterson J.L Measurement of histamine release in intact human skin by microdialysis technic., Danish Medical Bulletin. 1998, 43,  183-401.

              (156 ) : Picard J Glycozaminoglicaneset proteoglicanes  C.R.S.Biol1993, 187, 143-165

              (157) :Pletneva E.V., Laderach A.T., Fulton D.H. Kostik  N.M.The role of cation -7nteraction in biomolecular association. Design of peptides favoring interaction between cationic and aromatic aminoacids side chain :Amer.J.Chem.Soc.2++1, 123, 6232-6245.

              (158) :Predescu V., Costinel E., Oancea C.:The 2nd Nat.Conf.of Psycgiatry, Bucureşti, 1968

(159) :Pullman B., Pullman A.:Quantum Biochemistry, 1963, Intersci Publ.John Willey et sons N.Y., London.

(160) : PutnamW. F.:Struture and function of the plasma proteins, inNeurath H (Ed) Acad.Press New York, London, 1965, vol.III, 154-253.

              (161) :Record  jr.M.T., Zhang W., Anderson F.Ch., Analysis of effect of salts and ancharged solutis on protein and nucleic acids equillibria processes :a practical guide to recognizing and interpreting polyelectrolite effect Hofmeister effects and osmotic effect of salts.Advances in protein chemistry vol 51, pg.281-350.

               (162) :Reed K.R., Woiek R.R., Integrine and control interstitial fluid pressureNew physiol.sci., 1997, 12, 42-48.

               (163) :Rjehl I.L., Analog analysis of EEG activity, Aerospace medicine, 1961, 12-23.

               (164) :Rjehl I.L., Electroencephalography Clinic Neurophysiol.1966, 21, 325-329.

               (165) :Rinaudo M., Loiseleur B:, Proprietes des solutions aqueuses des polyelectrolites en presence de sels neutres J.Chemie  Physique  1973, 70, 1697-1701.

               (166) :Rinaudo M., Loiseleur B., Milas M., Determination de la constant de dissociation des polyacides par potentiometrie. C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris 1971, 273, 1148-1151.  ,

(167) :Rinaudo M., Milas M., Etude de selectivite de polielectrolites anioniques en function de leur    densite de charge.C.R.Acad.Sci, Paris, 1969, 269, 1190                                                                                                                 (168) :Rinaudo M., Milas M.:Propriete electrochimique  des polyelectrolytes a densite de charge elevee.J de Chimie Physique.1969, 66, 1489-1496

               (169) :Rinaudo M., Milas M.:Etude de l’exchangeentre cation monovalent et cation bivalent dans les polyelectrolytes., Europ.Polymer. J. 1972, 8, 737-746.

              (170) :Rinaudo M., Milas M.:Detemination of the thermodynamique parameters of selectivity on polyelectrolytes by potentiometry and microcalorimetry 1973, 6, 879-881.

             (171) :RobertL:Dutissue conjonctif a la matreice extracellulaire., C.R.S.Soc.Biol1993, 187, 105-113

             (172) :Ropper H.A., Gorson C., K.Neuropathees associated with  paraproteinemia   N.Engl.J.Medicin

1998, 338, 1601 – 1607.

            (173) :Rotaru M.:Fiziologia ovarului :hormonii sterolici ovarieni., in Teodorescu-Exarcu I.Fiziologia şi fiziologia sistemului endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1989, pg.1003.

            (174) :Rowland P.L., Fink e.m., Rubina L.:Cerebrospinal fluid. Blood brain barrier, brain oedema hydrocephalus  in Kandell R.E., Schwartz H.Y., Jessell (Eds) Principles of Neural Science  3rd ed Prentice –Hales Internat 1050-1060.

                   (175) RusH.G., Niculescu F., Cucuianu M.:Bazele fiziopatologice ale proteinelor plasmatice, în Cucuianu, Crâsnic I, Pleşca Manea. Luminiţa e Biochimie Clinică, 1998,  pg.80.

           (176) :Rus H.G., Niculescu F., Cucuianu M.:Bazele fiziopatologice ale proteinelor plasmatice Biochimie clinică, 1998, pg.81.

           (177) :Ruţka: P.J., Ackerley C., Hubbard S.L., Tlup A., Dirks P.B., Jung., Jovanchuk M., Teugu A., Beckor E.L. :Caracterization of glial filament –cytoskletal interaction in human astrocytomas an immunoultrastructural analysis. Europ.J.of cell biology, 1998, 76, 279-287

                  (178 ): Ruţkov A.P.:Chimie coloidală. Ed Tehnică, Bucureşti, 1960.

                  (179) :Safni T.T., Takeuchi T., Miwa T., Application of microcolumn ion chromatography using anionexchanger s with dextran sulfate earth metal ions. :J.of chromatography 2001, 753, 409-412.

                  (180) :Salgado L.V., Yeh Z.J.Navahashi T.:Use and voltage –dependent block of the Na channel by saxitoxin in Kao Y.C., Levinson S.R.(Eds)Tetrotoxin and saxitoxin and the molecular biology, of the Nachanals, Annals of the N.Y.Acad. of Science  1984, vol.479, pg.84-95.

                 (181) :Scatchard G., Schemberg I H.Armstrong H.:Amer.Chem.Society, 1950, 72, 535.

                 (182) :Schartz H.Y.:The cytology of neuroms, in Kandell  R.E., Schwartz H.J., Jrssell M.t:(Eds)Principles of neural science 3rd Ed. Prentice –Hales Internat.Inc, pg-37-48

                 (183) :Scott  J.E., Ion binding patterns of „affinity” depending of type of of acid group.Symp.Soc.Exp.Biol Sci.1989, 43,  14-45.

                 (184) :Scrutton S.N.:Raine R.C.A.Cation --binding and aminoaromatic interaction in the biomolecular recognition of substituted amonium ligand. Biochemical J.1996, 319, 1-8.

                 (185) :Sigelbaum A.S., Koster J.:Ion channels, in Kandell R.E-.Schwartz H.Y., Jessell M.T.(Eds)Principles of neural sci. 3rd Prentice –Hales pg.60-55-

                 (186)Simanonok K.E., Fortney S.M., Ford S.R., Charles I.B:, Ward O.F.The effect of DVAP with saline loadihg on fluid balabce during LBNPand standing  after 23 h head down bed  bed rest :J.Gravitational Physiology, 1994,  1,  104-105..

                 (187) :Simon E., Interface of properties of circumventricular organ in salt and fluids balance :News  Physiol sci 2000, 15, 61-67-

                (188) :Sober A.H., Hartley W.R., Carroll R.W._Fractionation of protein, in Berthon G.(Ed) Handbook of metal ligand interaction in biologic fluid. Bioanorganic Chemistry, 1995, 2, 2-91.

                (189) :So’bo’tka T.J., Cook P.M., Brodie F.R., Neonatal malnutrition :Neurochemical, hormanal and behavioral manifestation. Brain  Res. 1974, 65,  443- 457.

                (190) :Stec E.D., Sigmund D.c.Physiological insights from genetic manipulations of the renin-angiotensin sysrem:News in physiol Sci.2002,  16, 80 – 84.

                (191) :Steinhard J., Beychok S., Interaction of proteins with hydrogen ionses and other  small iones and molecules, in Neurath H (Ed) The protein composition, structure and function.Acad Press New York, London, vol.2 pg.140-304.

               (192) :Stern C.W., Forbes B.W., Resnick O., Morgan J.P.:Seizure susceptibility and brain amino levels folowing protein malnutrition during development in the rats.Brain Res. 1974, 79, 175-184.

               (193) :Stern C.W., Morgan J.P., Miller M., Resnik O.:Protein malnutrition in  rats :response of brain amines and behavior to foot shock stress.Experimental Neurology 1975, 47, 56-67.

               (194) : Stern C.W., Pugh W.W., Resnik O., Morgan J.P.:Developmental malnutrition in the rats.Effects of single-unit activity in frontal cortex.Brain Res.1984, 306, 227-234.

               (195) :Stocand D., Edinger S.R., Eaton C.D., Johnson P.J.:Toward understanding the role of methylation in aldosteron sensitive Natransport. News Physiol Sci 2000, 15, 161-165.

               (196) :Strichartz G., Rando T.,  Hall S., Magnani B.Bay C.H.:On mechanism by wzch saxitoxin bind to and blocks Nachannls in Kao J.C., Levinson S.R.(Eds).Tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and the molecular biology  of the Nachannals. Annals of the N.Y.Acad. Sci, 1986, vol.479, 96-112.

               (197)Subarao V.V.Effect of photic stimulation and dark confinement on brain protein and GABA content, in Klee R.M.(Ed)            Physiology and Physiopatology of Epileptogenic Phenomena. Raven Press N.Y.1982, 395-396.

              (198) :Şuloc Tudora, Dumitru M..Particulatităţi fiziologice ale sistemului endocrin la vâ Teodorescu Exarcu I.(Ed)Fiziologia şi Fiziopatologia sistemului endocrei Bucureşti, Ed.Med., 1989, pg.1224-65.

              (199) :Takeda Y., Miyamori I., Ioneda E., Iki K., Takeda R. Effect of aging on  urinary excretion of 9-noraldosteron and 18, 19 dihydroxycorticosteron. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol., 1995, 52, 383-386.

              (200) :Takeuki S.T., Miwa T.;Application of microcolumn  in microchromatography using anion exchangers modified by dextren sulfate for determination of alcali and alcaline-earth mrtal ions.J.chromatography B.2001, 751, 409-412.

              (201) :Takeuki S.T., Miwa T., Hashimoto Y., Mariyawa H.;Ion chromatography using anion exchangrs  modified with heparine :Analysis, 1998, 26, 61-64.

              (202):Teodorescu.Exarcu I.Transportul hormonilor, în Teodorescu-Exarcu (Ed) Fiziologia şi Fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin,. Bucureşti, Ed Medicală, 1989, pg.32 36) :                         (203) :Teodorescu-Exarcu I.Transportul plasmatic al hormonilor tiroidieni, î,  Teodorescu-Exarcu I.(Ed) Fiziologia şi Fiziopatologia sistemului endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală 1989, pg.353.

                  (204) :Teodorescu-Exarcu I., Metabolismul calciului magneziului şi fosforului şi hormonii calcitropi, în Teodorescu-Exarcu I.(Ed)Fiziologia şi Fiziopatologia Sistemului Endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1989, p718-25

                  (205) :Teodorescu-Exarcu I., Badiu Gh., Echilibrul hidro-salin şi hormonii implicaţi în homeostazia hidro-salină, (hormonul natriuretic atrial), în Teodorescu Exrcu I.(Ed) Fiziologia şi Fiziopatologia Sistemului Endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1989, pg.872-903.

                  (206) :Teodoresu Exarcu I., Badiu Gh.Fiziopatologia metabolismului hidrosalin, în Teodorescu Exarcu I.(ed)Fiziologia şi fiziopatalogia sistrmului endocrin, Bucureşti, Ed.Medicală, 1989, pg.872-902.

                  (207) :Thornhill B.W., Levinson R.S., Biosythesis of electroplax sodium channls n Kao J.C., Levinson S.R.(Eds)Tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and the molecular biology of the sodium channals Annals of the N.Y.Acad, Sci.:1986,, vol.479, pg356-363.

                  (208) :TianF., Lee R.C., Hu W., Croseg T.A.Monovalent cation transport :lake of structural deformation upon cation binding, Biochemistry, 1996, 35, 11959-11966.

                  (209) :Tsoubuchi  M., Tsoubuchi Y., Hitami S., Ohtsuka A., Murakami T.:Perineuronal sulfated proteoglycans, cell surface glycoproteins and dark neurons of the cingulate of cortex newborn and adult rats  Acta Med.Okayama 1996, 50, 313-317.

                  (210) :Tsoubuchi Y., Tsoubuchi M., Hitani S., Ohtsuka A., MurakanniT.:Perineuronal sulfated proteoglycans in the rats brain :histochemical and electronomicroscopic studies.Acta medica Okayama, 1996, 50, 237-241.

                  (211) :Tyengar V.G:;Iyngar V:Spedific problem in trace elements determinations in biological fluids, in Berthon G.(Ed)Handbook of metal ligand interaction in biological fluids. Bioanorganic chemistry, vol, 2m11127-1137.

                  (212) :Ţimiraş S. Paola Physiological basis of Geriatrics, 1988, McMillan.Publ.Comp.New York.

                  (213) :Ţiţeica Ş-;Termodinamica, Bucureşti, Ed.Academiei, 1982.

                  (214) :Ulbricht W.Wagner H.H., Schmidtmayer I.:Kinetics of TTX, -STX  blok of sodium –cannals, in Kao J.C., Levinson S.R.(Eds), Tetrodotoxin, Saxitoxin and molecular biology of the sodium cannalsof tha N.Y.Acad of sci.1986, vol 472, pg.68-83.

                  (215) :Uluitu M.:Sinteza colesterolului în corticosuprarenală :Fiziologia Normală şi Patologică 1964, 10, 201-205.

                  (216) :Uluitu M:Sinteza hormonilor corticosuprarenali şi factorii care îi influenţează, Fiziologia Normală şi Patologică, 1965, 11, 7-37.

                  (217) :Uluitu M:Semnificaţia funcţională normală şi patologică a interacţiei Nacu proteinele în serul sanghin, Viaţa Medicală, 1981,  XXVIII, 493-498.

                  (218) :Uluitu M:Mass transfer in zhe structure of connex energy fields in the function of the brain,  in Nejat Veziroglu T(E), Particulate fenomena and  multiphase transport, Hemisphere Publ.Corporation, Washington, New York, London, 1988, vol.2, pg.451-458.

                  (219) :Uluitu M:Variaţiile conţinutului în serotonină în raport cu unele modificări metabolice şi funcţionaleale ale creerului :Bucureşti, Teză de doctorat, 1968.

                  (220) :Uluitu M:The action of lithium upon sodium, potassium, water and serotonin, in Gallicchio V.S, (Ed), Lithium and the blood, F.Neil Johnson (Ed):Lithium therapy monographs, Karger 1991, pg.145- 181.

                  (221) :Uluitu M.,  Fiziologia sistemului endocrin, Note de curs, 1992, Academia Universitară Atheneum, Bucureşti.

                  (222) :Uluitu M., Fiziologie renală.Note de curs, Bucureşti, Academia Universitară Atheneum, pg.23-50.

                  (223) :Uluitu M., Bădescu Al., Chiş Rodica, Influence of increasd sodium intake of Cerebral excitability. Roum J.Physiol., 1995, 32, 11-33.

                  (224):Uluitu;Berlogea O., Voiculescu A., Ionescu V., Petec Gh., Catrinescu Gloria, Chiş Rodica, Correlations between the blood serum sodium state with some functional parameters in prepubescent children. Rev.Roum Morphol.Embryol.Physiol.(Physiologie), 1978, 15, 228-231.

                 (225) :Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica, Petec Gh.The influence of lithium on blood and cerebral serotoninand on renal elimination of sdium, water and potassium in normal rats and those susceptible to audiogenic convulsion, in Birch N.J., (Ed):Lithium. Inorganic pharmacology and psychiatric use.Proc 2nd British, lithium congress, Wolverhampton  Polytechnic 1987, pg.169-170.

                (226) :Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica :Aspects of interaction between lithium and fluorescent aminoacids., in Symposium „The electric structure and properties of molecules and crystals” Dubrovnik-Cavtat, Jugoslavia, 1998.

                (227) :Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica, Bădescu Al., On some electrolytic and water metabolism modification in rats suscetibles to audiogenic convulsions.Roum.J.Physiol.1993, 3o, 139-150

                (228) :Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica, Bădescu Al., Blood serum and NaCl  effects on the dyalisis of serotonin in the presence of heparin, as test for possible behavior disturbances.Trace and microprobe tehniques, 1998, 16, 371-375.

                     (229) :Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica,  Iftincă M., Influence of acceleration over hydroelectrolytic homeostasis in audiogenic sezures prone rats compared to normal excitability rats.Roum J Physiol.1999, 36, 11-27.

                    (230) :Uluitu M., Hoteteu M., Leancu C., Popa J_:G.Hydroelectrolytic balance in relation to age and cerebral excitability. Roum J.Physiol. 2001, 38, 71-90.

                    (231) :Uluitu M., Oancea C., Petec Gh., Vicol Laura..Determination of blood serum protein reactivity in children with behavior disturbances Rev.Roum.Morphol.Embryol.Physiol.(Physiology ), ]975, 12, 113-117.

                    (232) :Uluitu M., Petec Gh., Chiş Rodica,  A method for estimation of sodium state biological fluids, Rev.Roum.Physiol. 1973, 10, 183-195.

                    (233) :Uluitu M., Petec Gh., Chiş Rodica.Investigation concerning the sodium state in the blood serum.Rev.Roum. Physiology.1973, 10, 197-204.

                    (234) : Uluitu M., Teleianu Camelia, Stoicesu N., Corelaţii clinice şi patogenetice între motricitatea veziculei biliare şi starea funcţională a regiunii cervicale a coloanei vertebrale la tineri.Revista medicală Română, 1999, vol.XLVI, 24-28.

             (235) :Uluitu M., Teleianu Camelia, Stoicescu N.:Incidence of morphofunctional lessions in the cervical region  of patients with gall-bladder dyskinezia. Roum.J.Physiol..1998, 35, 61-66.

            (236) : Uluitu M., Vrâncianu R., Petec Gh., Chiş Rodica, Berlogea O., Voiculescu A., Nelepcu Georgeta, Oancea C., Blum Denise, Sandu G., ondoiu I., Popa-Radu Ana,  Kunetskaia Wanda.Psyhophysiological research for defining the mental healthcondition in a normal school collectivity.Rev.roum.Morphol., Embriol., Physiol.(Physiology ),  1977, 14, 263-276.

            (237) :Villani F., Andreoli V., Mangoni A., Varazioni elettrolitiche e patologia mentale. Rivista sperimentali di freniatria e de medicina legale dalle alienationi mentali.1972, XCVIpg.7-31.

(238) :Vovum R., Reversible  ligand binding in human serum albumin:Danish Med.Bul.1999, 46, 379-399.

(239) :Vrâncianu R.:Digest of the 10th International Conferince  on medical and biological engeneering, Dresden, 1973.

(240) :Vrâncianu R., Popescu M.T., Uluitu M., Chiş Rodica, Lazăr M:EEG automatic processing method, Rev.Morphol, Embryol, Physiol.(Physiology), 1985, 22, 203-210.

(241) : Weatherall  D.J., Leadingham J.G.G., Warrall D.A., The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Translation S.C.Ed Tehnică S.A., Bucureşti, 1996.

(242) :Weight F.F., MacDornat B.A., Membrane ion channels and neuronal excitability, in Klee M.R.(ed) Physiology and Pharmacology of epileptogenic Phenomena, Raven Press, New York 1982, 227-233.                      

(243) :Weinbach A.P.:Micromethod for determination of sodium.J.Biol Chem.1935, 110, 95-103.

(244) :Welbourne T., Routh R., YudnaffM., Nissim I.:The glutamine/glutamat couple and cellular function, New in Physiological Science, 2001, 16, 157-161.

(245) :Westphal U.Steroid-binding serum globulin, in O, MalleyR.W.:Birnbournerl (Eds)Recent results in receptors in hormone action. Acad Press N.Y., SanFrancisco, London, 1978, pg.443-453.

(246) :Wieling  W., HallwillJ.R., Karemaker J.M.:Orthostatic intolerance after space flight :J.Physiol.2002, 89, 538-547.

(247) :Windhager E.E.:Kidney, water and electrolytes. Ann Rev.Physiology, 1969, 31, 117-143.

(248) :Winfield U.:J.B., Show M., SilvernamI.M.Eisenberg R.H., Wilson H.A.Koffler D.:Intrathecal IgG synthesis and blood-brain barrier impairment in patient with systemic lupus erythrometosus and central nervous system dysfunction, Amer.J.Med.1983, 75, 837-844.

(249) :Woolff B.T., Raux B.T.The binding sites of sodium in gramicidin A channel:Comparison of molecular dynamic witth solid state. NMR Date, Biophysical J.1997, 72, 1930-1935.

(250) :Zaric S.D., Popovic D.M,, Knapp R.W.:Meal ligand aromatic cation-interaction in metalloprotein sligand coordinated to metal with aromatic residues. Chemistry,  2000, 6, 3935-3942.



Professor Marcel Uluitu, M.D. Ph.D. began his scientific activity in Physiology in 1953 at the Physiology School (Medical School) Cluj-Napoca, in Romania. He continued his scientific activity in Physiology in Bucharest at the Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology Daniel Danielopolu until 2004, at which time he retired as Director of the Institute; he had held this position since 1990. His research work includes studies of the central nervous system physiology relating to the transmission of information in the nervous centers; cerebral excitability, using methods, in their evolution, from the determination on reactive isolated organ, to the most complex physical and chemical methods, in the present. In his research of chemical mediation he studied acetylcholine, serotonin, and their connection with the cerebral metabolism.

Professor Uluitu has also investigated cerebral tissue excitability, studying the structure modification of the protein macromolecules, and the physiological and pathopysiological processes in which are involved Sodium and Lithium. He implemented an original method for physical and chemical processes which involve the chemic active sodium, in normal processes and in the cerebral excitability dysfunctions, in human and in experimental model (animal). These results of this work gave him the chance to outline the chapter herein relating to the physiology of substances transport in the blood. This is based on the physical and chemical interaction between blood components.

His papers are included in the collections of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institute of Health. He is a member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences.


Dr. Diana Popa (Uluitu) is a researcher in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. She attended Medical School at Vasile Goldis University in Arad, Romania, and graduated in 1998; during summer breaks at medical school she volunteered at the Institute of Physiology D. Danielopopu in the physiology and microbiology laboratories as well as in the clinic. After completing medical school and a one year internship, she worked as a Research Assistant at the Danielopopu Institute for three years before coming to the University of Kentucky. In addition to her medical thesis, which focused on the actions of Lithium on the central nervous system, since coming to the United States she has published numerous additional papers relating to Lithium and other substances. In continuing her on-going studies, Dr. Popa is currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Public Health at the University of Kentucky. 


[ back to "Publications & Special Reports" ]
[ BWW Society Home Page ]