Commentary: Autobiography:



Bonded to People


Professor Dr Dr Randolph Riemschneider, LBFel

Institute of Biochemistry, Free University of Berlin (FUB), Germany

Central Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


BWW Life Fellow Member Professor Randolph Riemschneider has summarized his lifetime work in a soon to be published book [1] in which readers will find some enlightening reports about the numerous people who influenced his life. With this paper the author also continues his essay “Bonded to Compounds – Providence” from the July-August 2005 issue of this Journal [2]


Chemistry has always been and remains the author’s life. For the sake of his devotion to chemistry, the author has resisted and confronted all problems which politics can involve, and has fought against resistances and intrigues. Here it is shown from whom and in what manner he received support and sorely-needed assistance.


This essay also represents a piece of contemporary history, especially from the 1940s to the 1960s, regarding Nobel Prize winners such as Profs Alder/Diels, Butenandt, R.Kuhn, Pauling, Natta/Ziegler and in Germany well-known personages such as Profs. Dinghas (mathematician), Lohmann (ATP), Sauerbruch, General Nobile, Dir. Dr. Scherer (Freon HOECHST), and Dr. Ronge (attorney) as well as personages from Japan and Brazil who have influenced the life of the author.

                                                                                                - The Editor




In the opinion of the author, the Vita written by Professor Dr. H. Reinitzer [3] and the essay "Bonded to Compounds - Providence" [2] would not be complete without recognising the people who played a role in his life - hereinafter contemplated under the aspect "Bonded to Persons".


More than once, the author was lucky enough to meet people in the right place and at the right time who had a decisive impact on his life. Those worth mentioning are, in the order of the year of first contact:


1)     K. Wonde, Student of Theology, Hitler opponent, in Berlin (1936)

2)      Prof. Dr. Conrad Weygand, Organic Chemistry, University of Leipzig (1937)

3)      Prof. Dr. Günther Rienäcker, Inorganic Chemistry,

Universities of Göttingen (1939) und Rostock (1946)

4a)     Karl Erdmann, demoted police officer, Hitler opponent in Komotau during infantry drill (1941)

4b)    Dipl.Ing. Oskar Matter, chemist in Vitznau, Switzerland, specialist for explosives – first met in Germany in 1943 

5)      Prof. Dr. Karl Lohmann, Physiological Chemistry, Uni of Berlin (1946) - Lohmann – discoverer of the adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) in the 30ies – ought to have received the Nobel Price, together with Meyerhof but did not: for mere political reasons. 

6)      Dr. Werner Saenger, publisher of the periodical "Die Pharmazie",  Berlin (1947)

7)      Prof. Dr. Alexander Dinghas, Mathematics, University of Berlin (1948); later: Free University of Berlin (1949); friend of A. Einstein

8)      Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Sauerbruch, surgeon at Charité Berlin (1948)

9)      Dr. von Bergmann, reader of the publishing house Dr. W. Saenger (1947), later Curator of the Free University of Berlin (1950)

10)    Dr. Paul Ronge, famous defence counsel, Berlin (1950)

11)    Director Dr. F. Scherer, Farbwerke HOECHST (1949)

12)   Prof. Dr. W. Lautsch, Organische Chemistry FU (1951)


Contacts in Brazil:

13)    Prof. Dr. Richard Wasicky, Sen., Pharmacy Dept., University S. Paulo (1948)

14)    Prof. Dr. José Mariano da Rocha Filho, for many years Vice-chancellor of the University of Santa Maria,  Reitor da UFSM; head of Medical School, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil (1962)


Contacts in Japan:

15)    Prof. Dr. Sankei Takei, Agricultural Chemistry, University of Kyoto, Japan (1949)

16)    Prof. Dr. Yonezo Morino, Physics and Chemistry, Tokyo University, Japan (1949)

17)    Mr. Toru Aikawa, Yamakawa Company, Ltd., Tokyo (1958)


Contact in Italy:

18)    Prof Dr G Natta, Politecnico Milano (1951), Nobel Price

Winner in 1963

19)   Prof Dr D Marotta, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 1950 (1942)

20)   Prof Dr Umberto Nobile, General and University Naples(1951)



re 1) WONDE:


At the end of 1936, the author took the first steps towards his subsequent intended emigration from Nazi Germany  a f t e r  having studied chemistry in his native country. 


After changing from a high school in Cologne to one in Berlin, the author had problems with certain home essay topics such as "Who has been called 'Great' in history", "The people is alive in books", "The importance of the Indo-Teutonic race", etc. because of his negative attitude towards the Nazi system. Therefore, an ad was placed to look for assistance. A certain Mr. Wonde replied, who was just the right person because of his history with the Nazis (concentration camp). Mr. Wonde taught the author to say one thing and think the other, explained what was right and what should be written to get a pass. In doing so, Mr. Wonde continued what grandmother Ida had started intuitively, but was unable to put into words as clear as those of Mr. Wonde. The hiss she made when producing the word "Nazi" was clear proof of her disgust with this system.


This grandmother, called "Aunt Ida" by everybody, was a kind, selfless woman who helped wherever she could. Even when she died on April 12, 1944, she did good: Because the author had to travel to her funeral in Hamburg-Ohlsdorf on April 20, 1944, he owes her his life, because he would normally have been on call at the Hydrogenation Plant RUHRÖL GmbH, Bottrop, Westphalia. In order to be able to travel to Hamburg, the author had switched his 24 hour duty with a colleague. This duty comprised going through all the departments working round the clock to encourage those working there, i.e. to show solidarity as an academic also during the alarms.

After a strategic attack, RUHRÖL was in ruins on April 20, 1944.  During that week, the remaining six operating hydrogeneration plants in Germany were attacked and almost destroyed, too, so that the production of petrol practically came to a standstill. As a result, there was a lack of the RUHRÖL petrol rich in aromatics needed for the fighter planes to repel the bombers.


Thanks to Mr. Wonde, the author received his first in-depth information from one who knows about the downside of the NS system and learnt about its real intentions which cannot be called anything but criminal. His attitude towards National Socialism (NS-System) which had been critical from the very beginning was confirmed thereby early on;


as conclusions he drew:


-    not to join the "Hitler Youth"

-    not to publish[i] in Germany as long as this system was in power

-    to exercise passive resistance in the subject religious education[ii] when the teacher dealt with nothing but Hitler's "Mein Kampf" for over seven months[iii]


For the future, the author resolved to perfect his English so as to be able emigrate to another country after finishing his studies of chemistry in Germany in the event the NS system should prevail.


Despite his intention to study chemistry, the author had chosen classical education at the Schiller Highschool in Cologne with the languages Latin, French and Greek. So he had to teach himself English! This paid off later in the form of the textbook "Englisch nach dem Zeitwortsystem" (English by the verb system); cf. APPENDIX I in VITA [3].





Commencement of the author's own chemical research under the direction of Prof. Dr. Conrad Weygand: annual paper in the subject Chemistry in preparation of  Highschool graduation (Abitur) at the Matthias-Claudius-Gymnasium in Hamburg during the years 1937 to 1939, resulting in his thesis for diploma in 1941 and, later, in PROJ I with over 100 quotes (1937 - 2006)[iv]


As a pupil, the author visited Prof. Weygand at the Institute of Organic Chemistry of the University of Leipzig in 1937[v] and submitted several protocols of his chemical experiments in the field of organic chemistry. These were rated by Weygand as subjects covered by chemistry students from the third term upwards.


Weygand then proposed several experiments which might be suitable for "preparing a so-called annual paper in preparation of the Highschool diploma". This was the beginning of valuable contacts which, in 1939, actually did result in an annual paper [4] [ref. [1] in PROJ I], then to a thesis for diploma [5] in 1941 and finally, at the author's own initiative, in PROJ I with the title "Acyl derivatives of cyclic compounds, oxydations with permanganates and chromium trioxide"4.


One practical result: Discovery of o-diacetylbenzene (1937), drawing up a working synthesis, development of the process right to the production stage, accepted as a commercial product by the Schuchardt company in Munich (later MERCK): [37].


In 1937, Professor C. Weygand pointed Riemschneider towards his first research project "Acyl derivatives of isocyclic compounds, permanganate oxidations" and, without intending to, prepared the path for his eventual "succession". In the last few days of this pointless war in the Spring of 1945, he was killed as a "home guard combatant".


Professor Weygand excelled in experimentation. His most valuable experience is summarised in his book "Organische Experimentierkunst"[vi] (The art of organic experimentation). In the years between 1937 and 1941, the author was present on several occasions when Weygand duplicated experiments described in literature to include them into the latest edition of his work.


In this connection, the author was also a witness to the “KPG Stirrer experiments” (Fig 11 in [1]) which he later used for analytical work of "Zn dust treatment of approx. 60 polyhalocyclohexanes" (638); Fig 11 in PROJ. IX 3,8,2  in [1].


All of the experiments described in the above-mentioned book "Experimentierkunst" were tested either by Weygand personally or carried out in his lab and supervised by him. On several occasions, the author acted as his assistant.


Professor Weygand had a special way of wearing his glasses which was especially conspicuous during his lectures: He usually pushed them up on his forehead and let them drop when he wanted to read or take a closer look at something.


His lectures were not exactly exciting, but full of valuable information and spiced with examples from his own experience, i.e. far away from the usual textbooks. For instance, he did not make a classification into aliphatic and aromatic chemistry, but classified compounds by the number of carbon atoms, by the reaction of functional groups and areas. When giving a lecture on heterocycles containing N in 1941, for example, he mentioned that enjoying a smoke certainly involves the visual aspect: during the Great War, the soldiers in the trenches smoked in the dark, but did not get much joy out of it.

Smokers, please check: the author has never smoked.

The author’s advice: Do never smoke -  every cigarette may take several minutes of your life.





The author's university career began when the experimental paper titled "Contact insecticides on halogen hydrocarbon basis" submitted to Prof. Rienäcker in Rostock in 1946 was classified as a post-doctoral thesis.


The first personal contacts with Prof. Dr. G. Rienäcker started in October 1939 when the author studied chemistry in Göttingen. And then continued in October 1946 during a visit to Rostock: The author submitted an experimental paper of approx. 200 pages with the title [in English translation] "Constitution and effect of insecticides on halogen hydrocarbon basis", Comm. I and II  - printed as a supplement to the magazine "Die Pharmazie" on October 20, 1946 [6]: Professor Rienäcker classified this paper as a post-doctoral thesis right away and sent the author to Professor Dr. K. Lohmann, Director of the Physiological-Chemical Institute of the University of Berlin, with a letter of recommendation.


Thus Prof. Rienäcker laid the foundations for the author's future in October 1946:


The author had travelled to Rostock to get advice - serious things had happened in Jena:

In the autumn of 1946, the Soviets abducted all of the scientists still working at Jena University[vii] as well as specialists from the Schott and Zeiss factories. (The author had feared something like that might happen and had only ever worked there for his own account.)  Those deported[viii] were given five year contracts.

The author had been advised by the office of the vice-chancellor to disappear; his private agreements with Professor Keller of the Institute of Pharmacy [PROJ I in (1)], were not accepted. What to do?

The author had an offer to work at the Hamburg Tropical Institute (Route I); he also considered the option of working as an industrial chemist (Route II). A third option, namely habilitation and a university career, was shown him by Professor Rienäcker. With the above-mentioned letter of recommendation, he certainly laid the foundations for Route III, because he was convinced of the value of the post-doctoral thesis (for continuation, see Lohmann).


In 1949, the author sent Professor Rienäcker reports on his unpublished experimental results on a totally new topic, namely “Reactions in resp. with compressed CO2” and "Inorganic-organic solvents having a low melting point (polar ionic, non-aqueous solvents)" including the concept of a leaflet submitted to the patent department of HOECHST in 1950.

This also comprised the lecture on solvents like "imidazoles + AlCl3", "compressed CO2", ecc. ref [10] given in Hoechst on December 15, 1952, cf. also SPECIAL PART F).



re 4a) ERDMANN


Active support to leave the military as soon as possible and to return to chemistry. Final success in March 1943 as a result of other steps taken early on.


On October 1, 1941, the author graduated as a Certified Chemist[ix]. On October 3, 1941, he reported to the infantry in Komotau. One of the treats of the first month was "on the double with a gas mask and a heavy backpack" - intolerable. Comrade Erdmann (demoted as a police officer, because he had denied Polish provocations justifying the invasion of our troops in Poland) had valuable advice: "Tomorrow, do exactly what I do: At the next command 'on the double with the gas mask on', throw yourself on the ground, do not get up and get yourself transported back to the barracks. Half an hour before the medical examination the next day, swallow 7 ASPIRIN!" No sooner said than done. The result: accelerated pulse, racing heart, etc. I was diagnosed unfit for the infantry and transferred to the riflemen, i.e. to safety for the time being. Those "trained" in Komotau were sent to the Russian front after only two months  - canon fodder.


Operation ASPIRIN was an important, albeit dangerous step of the author to get out of the military and to return to chemistry. Luckily, the military doctor did not discover the ASPIRIN trick [2]. Two other steps had already been taken shortly before the author was called up: 1) A job application in reply to an ad of RUHRÖL, a hydrogenation plant, which would have released me from military service, and 2) an application as chemist for the military. The latter was written by the author's father, because an application by a soldier would not have been considered.


ASPIRIN had saved me from being sent to the front, but did not lead to my immediate release. This was achieved when I was accepted as a military chemist in 1942, and thanks to a "RÜ exchange in 43" I was rated "UK" (indispensable) and released from military service with effect from April 1, 1943. I worked as chemist at the hydrogenation plant of RUHRÖL in Bottrop until the factory was destroyed on July 20, 1944.



re 4b) OSKAR MATTER, engineer


He made it possible that first patents in Switzerland were granted on chemical inventions of the author who lived in the Sowjet occupied part of Germany and laid the foundation for the author's fondness of and subsequent ties to neutral and democratic Switzerland. – Co-operation in the field of explosives: Tetrazole derivatives (from 1953 on)


The author had the first contact with a person from Switzerland during the Second World War in Bottrop which led to a life-long fatherly friendship and at the same time a very fruitful cooperation in the field of chemistry. This was particularly helpful during the first post-war years when Germany was under Allied occupation and strict control. Thanks to Matter, the author was able to send his first patent applications to Switzerland by coded post consignment.

The meeting with Matter also resulted in first contacts with neutral and genuinely democratic Switzerland itself - very important for the author’s future in private life. In 1949, the first invitation to Switzerland was issued.


After two patents had been applied for in Switzerland with the aid of Mr. Matter (470) in [1], the first visit to this country took place in  1949.

The first time we ever spoke in 1943, we had realised that, in addition to chemistry, we shared another "passion", namely high-performance engines. Both of us knew Ferdinand Porsche in person; Matter was even able to call him his friend. The author mentioned that he was about to buy a Porsche.

Matter stressed that, unfortunately, high-performance engines had a short lifespan and was curious what the author would decide. The author decided to buy a Porsche – and not only one - just the same. A Swedish combine in Skoghall bought the first Porsche (picture) for the author as fee for scientific work done for them in 1949/50).

During a first visit to Vitznau in this Porsche in 1951, we took a spin from Vitznau via Brunnen and Zugersee around the Rigi and back to Vitznau, Mrs. Matter squeezed in the back of the two-seater.



Matter had been right when he prophesied the short lifespan: After only two years and 50,000 km the red 4-cyclinder Porsche gave out, and the second one did not last much longer. Only the 6-cyclinder TARGA Porsches, also air-cooled, had more stamina. After driving Porsches for 45 years, in 1987 the author bought the model 911 shown on the next page,  with a TARGA engine and Carrera special chassis:



We also discussed the parallel development of an air-cooled engine by Czech engineer Hans Ledwinka (TATRA)


In further discussions, engineer O. Matter had learnt that the author had worked at the Military Research Institute for explosives and warfare agents in Prague. Again, two "soul mates" had found each other: Explosives were Matter's specialty, especially boosters, azines and other nitrogen compounds. The author reported that he distinguishes between the following three explosive categories and received the expert's approval:


1)  Compound types such as TNT (trinitrotoluene), hexogen (trimethylene trinitramine), i.e. those containing fuel-C and one or more oxidant group(s) in the form of NO2. We are speaking of NO2- groups as nitro (C-N bond),  nitrate (C-O-N bond), nitrimino (C=N-N bond), nitramino (C-NH-N bond), N always being NO2.


2)   Compounds rich in N (endotherm) which release considerable amounts of N2 upon disintegration, i.e. tetrazoles, pentazoles, etc. (proposed in December 1942 during the presentation at the OKH. At the time, the author did not realise how backward (cf. explanation on next page) the Prague Research Institute was.    


3) Compounds of type 1) and 2) with considerable ring tension including cages.


Matter and the author started working together in this field in 1953; cf. SPECIAL PART K)



re 2) "backward" means to say that the scientists at this institute still worked on the "preparation of TNT analogues", e.g. " the nitration of trinitrobenzene" (not even on the far more interesting trinitroanisol). As the author learnt in January 1943, there was no cooperation with Peenemünde.

Still, he played along - Prague was always better than the front.


However, he kept his suggestions regarding tetrazoles, diamino-tetrazoles and other nitro derivatives (Formula Summary I) to himself, because he did not trust Drs. Cruse and Haul who worked in the Prague institute.


While in Prague, however, the author took the opportunity - unofficially and at his own initiative - to reproduce some of the tests on tetrazoles and tetrazole derivatives described in 1892 and later by J. Thiele (e.g. Liebig's Ann. Chemie 270,1;  273, 144; 303, 57) as well as several experiments published by R. Stolle and co-workers in 1933 (J. prakt. Chem. 138, 15) and to advance their development in some aspects; see SPECIAL PART K): Formula Summaries I, II, III and IV.


Keeping these activities secret paid off. The gentlemen in question were only able to publish the analytical method officially developed by the author at the Prague Institute, omitting to mention the true author "Method for determining trinitro­benzene besides m-dintrobenzene (witness: engineer A. Kühnl). As already mentioned, they were luckily unaware of the topic "Tetrazoles, monoaminotetrazole, diaminotetrazole as well as processing and nitration of the same"; cf. PROJ. IV 3: APPENDIX in [1].





Commencement of a university career under Lohmann - total freedom regarding the author's own chemical and biochemical research in all directions


Professor Rienäcker [re 3)] had considered three options for the author's habilitation:


1) Prof. Lohmann, Berlin, 2) Prof. Otto WARBURG, Berlin, 3) Prof. Hans Beyer, Greifswald. He saw no possibility in Rostock itself, because there were many young talents already. The very first contact with Professor Karl Lohmann was positive (1946):


The first recommendation of Prof. Rienäcker to travel to Prof. K. Lohmann, Berlin, turned out to be successful and led to the author's habilitation on the subject Organic Chemistry. This was completed in February with the first public lecture in February 1948 on the topic "Molecular Asymmetry" [7]. Moreover, Lohmann gave the author complete freedom regarding research, especially since he had ceased working in this field himself. At the request of Prof. Lohmann, the author often acted as his stand-in in lectures and introduction to laboratory courses.


Lohmann justified his attitude as follows: Even though he discovered adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP), he was passed over for the Nobel Prize!


Lohmann had worked at the Meyerhof Institute in Heidelberg where he first succeeded in isolating ATP from muscular tissue in 1929. Subsequently, he developed the ATP formula which was published in 1937. On the occasion of the first Chemists' Convention after the 2nd World War in Bonn in 1947, Prof. Cook closed his lecture on ATP with the words: "The formula of Lohmann is right." Unfortunately, Lohmann did not participate in Meyerhof's Nobel Prize later on.


Another recognition for Lohmann scheduled in the 1950s in Dresden did not come to pass either: As the only former post-doctoral candidate of Prof. Lohmann, the author was to deliver the ceremonial address. This never happened, because Lohmann died shortly before that.


With the support of Lohmann, the following appointments followed for the author:

-    Appointment as lecturer of Organic Chemistry at the Department of Science and Maths (1948).

-    Appointment as lecturer for Physiological Chemistry (1948) at the Medical School of the former  Friedrich Wilhelm University, meanwhile renamed Humboldt University in Berlin(EAST).

-    Appointment to the new chair for BIOCHEMISTRY [BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY] of the Humboldt University (1950) after he had changed to the Free University in Berlin(WEST) [For reasons that need not be explained, this professorship was not accepted!].


As can be inferred from the above, the enormous significance of the discovery of ATP did not receive appropriate recognition at first and did not find its way into pertinent textbooks until rather late. For the author, it was more than lucky to meet Lohmann that early and to hear about the significance of "bonds rich in energy"[x] with regard to ATP in his institute. Regarding this topic, the author established an immediate correlation with Professor Sauerbruch's question: "Why wounds heal quicker when covered by muscle tissue". More about the ATP-topic under "Sauerbruch" [re 8)]; more about the topic "bonds rich in energy" in SPECIAL PART C).





The publication of two monographs in the field of chemical pest control research "What there is to know about contact insecticides I & II" [6] by the publishing house Dr. Werner Saenger, Berlin (East), resulted in valuable contacts both at national and international level which were to have a decisive influence on his further action in the field of CHEMISTRY.


In October 1946, the author had submitted his manuscript with the title: "Constitution and effect of insecticides on the basis of halogen compounds" which had been accepted as a post-doctoral thesis for publication with the Dr. Saenger publishing house in Berlin. At the suggestion of the reader, von Bergmann, M.D., Dr. Saenger proposed to attach the publication as a supplement to the periodical "Die Pharmazie" together with a lecture given by the author on February 28, 1947, in the public colloquium at the Lohmann Institute for Physiological Chemistry of Berlin University.

This publication and a 150 page sequel titled "Contact insecticides on the basis of halogen hydrocarbons II" were both published as independent monographs in four editions, initially at the publishing house Dr. Werner Saenger in Berlin(EAST) and then, after Dr. Saenger had "moved" to West Germany, at the Aulendorff publishing house in Württemberg. Both publications [6] led to important personal contacts (cf. PROJ. IX 2,1 in [1]):


i.e. Abroad:

-    with Professor Dr. S. Takei, Kyoto University, JAPAN -  through Prof. Takei,

-    with Professor Dr. Y. Morino, Tokyo University; Takei was also responsible for the intensified contact with Nobel Prize Winner Dr. A. Butenandt that first started in 1950;

-    with Professor Dr. R. Wasicky, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL, and through him

-    with the vice-chancellor of the University of Santa Maria, Professor Dr. José Mariano da Rocha Filho, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, BRAZIL.


In Germany:

-    with Dr. Richard Kuhn, Nobel Prize  Winner for Chemistry, Heidelberg, from 1950 onwards;

-    with Prof. Dr. A. Butenandt, Nobel Prize Winner for Chemistry, Munich, from 1950 onwards;

-    with Dr. Escherich, Chief Editor of the "Magazine for Applied Entomology", Munich, 1952,

-    with Mr. von Bergmann, M.D., reader of the publishing house Dr. Werner Saenger, 1947/48; 1948 - 69, then curator of the newly established Free University [until the so-called democratisation of the FU, i.e. abolishment of all established structures, a general administration instead of the previous chancellorship which felt free to bully the professors, no more "protective" departments, etc.,1969 (Präsidialverwaltung statt Rektorat)]. Due to the university reform at the FU in Berlin in 1969, the institutes were replaced by scientific boards or central institutes headed by boards of “directors”. The scientific boards were then cleaved into several work groups each of which was managed by one or more university lecturers. Later, there were even work groups without university lecturers, so-called student teams which, as the above example shows, even had the power to destroy genuine research.

The function of a "managing director" of a scientific board at FU is not comparable with an "institute director" before 1969 (before introduction of the new University Act), i.e. there is no contradiction to the above comments: As a "comrade professor" (“Genosse Professor Arbeitsgruppenleiter”) one remains the team leader of a "tiny" team of a scientific institution. Things like that happened at the “Free” University since 1969!

See also last paragraphs of re 7) and SPECIAL PART A).






Mathematician Professor Dr. Dinghas organized the author's change of university from East to West on January 1, 1950, and supported his chemical research together with the Organic Chemist Professor Lüttringhaus, Freiburg i. Br., and Nobel Prize Winner Professor Dr. Richard Kuhn, Heidelberg: They tried to help in the organization and the construction of the chemistry departments of the newly founded University in Berlin(WEST) (FU) - seeing two possibilities for the author:


1)      Chair of STEREOCHEMISTRY (Organic Chemistry)   according to Dinghas/Lüttringhaus,

2)    Chair of BIOCHEMISTRY (Organic Chemistry)

  according to   Kuhn/Lüttringhaus,


being aware of the mathematical direction of some of the author’s work  a n d  regarding the position which the author had already in the  Humboldt University, Berlin(EAST), there he held the “Dozentur für Organische Chemie in der Math.Nat.Fakultät“ and simultanously the „Dozentur für Physiologische Chemie in der Medizinischen Fakultät.“

But as one sees - reading Plate 1 – the time to “separate the Biochemistry from the Organic Chemistry” and to create  a chair of Biochemistry was not ripe in 1950. Especially because in 1950 the chair of ORGANIC CHEMISTRY was administered for a short time by a Pharmaceutical chemist and in 1951 then – against the protest of the above mentioned experienced three professors – filled with an organic chemist interested more in biochemistry than organic chemistry.


Professor Dr. Alexander Dinghas, head of the mathematical department at Friedrich Wilhelm Universität, Berlin(EAST) until beginning of 1949, had attended the first public lecture on "Molecular Asymmetry" [7] in February 28, 1948, and became interested both in the work and the person of the author. These scientific contacts were intensified in numerous personal discussions.


After Professor Dinghas moved from EAST to WEST, i.e. from the university in Berlin(EAST) since renamed Humboldt University to the newly established Free University of Berlin(WEST)  in Dahlem in the Western sector, Professor Dinghas also prepared the path for the author's move on January 1, 1950.


Starting in 1949, Professor Dinghas was Director of the Mathematical Institute of the Free University of Berlin(West) (Dinghas is in the middle of illustration 1, to his right: Prof. Vetter). Dinghas was a close friend of Professor Einstein[xi] and Professor Dr. Iwan Nikola Stranski (TU Berlin). Together with the latter, he showed a keen interest in the stereochemical problems dealt with by the author and helped solve some of the related mathematical questions.


Dinghas knew that only one academic chair in Germany was held by a stereochemist (University of Freiburg i. Br.: Prof. Dr. A. Lüttringhaus) and wanted take an influence on organic chemistry in Berlin in cooperation with Lüttringhaus, Stranski and Nobel Prize Winner Prof. Dr. Richard Kuhn. Unfortunately, he was not successful, i.e. he was unable to prevent all FU chairs for chemistry being filled with unsuitable incumbents.

This was also the opinion of Prof. D. E. Schütte, head of the chair of Physiological Chemistry at the Medical School of the FU. For many years, Prof. Schütte had followed the above mentioned “battles of organic chemistry against biochemistry” in the Mathematical Scientific Department becoming independent with great interest.


Together with Professor Schütte, the author tried in 1967 to integrate his chair for biochemistry anchored in the Mathematic-Scientific Department with that of medicine across department borders, for example a "Chair for Biological Chemistry" within the meaning of the following scheme: Plate 1 and key

 - text continued after the key (next page)










Plate 1:

Scheme showing the derivation of the term "Biological Chemistry"




key to Plate 1:

This scheme was developed by the author in 1952 after a discussion with Prof. Dr. Richard Kuhn and later with Prof. Dr. L. Pauling. It makes the subject "BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY" (called "Biochemistry" for a long time) equivalent to the recognised subjects "Inorganic", "Organic", "Physical" and "Technical Chemistry". It also forms the basis for the interview recorded by reporter Friedrich Marsfeld at the Berlin broadcasting station RIAS on January 23, 1968, for the programme "Unser wissenschaftliches Tagebuch" [Our scientific diary]. See the text of the RIAS interview in [1].


Also already in the 50ies the author had had the opportunity to discuss with the Nobel Price Winner Professor Dr Linus Pauling the subject “Biological Chemistry” (to substitute the term Biochemistry) and in these discussions has been encouraged to fight for equality with “Inorganic, Organic, Physical and Technical chemistry”.


During the course of time the author had further talks with Professor Linus Pauling regarding


b)  the function of vitamin C as “Hydrid-Ion-transporter”,

     see Plate 6 and 7 in the essay [32],

c)  the steochemistry of vitamin C, see Plate 8 in [32]

d) own DL50 rat experiments and vitamin C metabolism [32] – (Vitamin C here: Ascorbis acid (I) – dehydroascorbic acid (II), including intermediates as a reversible redox system and II-mono and II-dihydrate); cf also [33].                                                          - key end -


Regarding the creation of a “Chair for Biological Chemistry” (interfakultär), the result of meetings with FU-representatives of the subjects Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiological Chemistry, Genetics, Botany, and Pharmacy was negative. The project primarily failed because of the resistance of the head of the department of Organic Chemistry, Professor Lautsch's successor Professor Dr. Manecke. Prof. Manecke was of the opinion that Biochemistry is a part of Organic Chemistry and might as well be represented by him, i.e. he felt we neither needed a chair for Biochemistry nor an integration with the medical subjects.


Just for clarification: The Chair for Biochemistry at the Free University of Berlin was created at the time at the initiative of Nobel Prize Winners Kuhn and Butenandt according to American role models (1957/58). The then head of the department of Organic Chemistry, Prof. Lautsch [cf. observations on “re 12)”], had only agreed to the author being called to the chair for Biochemistry on the condition that two Nobel Prize winners give an expert opinion on Riemschneider (by that time in the United States). This was done in 1958.


Initially, it was mentioned that the creation of a chair for Organic Chemistry with a focus on stereochemistry had been planned for the author; in view of the scope of the author's field of work, Kuhn and Butenandt saw no problem in switching to Biochemistry or Biological Chemistry, respectively: They were aware of the extensive early work carried out by the author in this direction. PROJ XV - XXVI - here: Xenobiotica (Fremdstoffe) included in Biological Chemistry; cf quotations before 1958 in [1].




First hint of Dinghas on the “new coming university law” and its consequences:

When the new leftist university law was defended in the 60ies for three hours by the creator, Prof. Stein, at a faculty meeting against all other members of the department, it was primarily Prof. Dinghas who fought verbal duels with Prof. Stein, because he was probably the only faculty member who foresaw the disastrous effect the planned new law would have on science. Unfortunately, the department did not reject the law, probably because of the political inexperience of most members of the Mathematical-Scientific Department. The author did not foresee the implications of the new law either, but Dinghas enlightened him privately in the evening after the meeting. For this, the author will be eternally grateful to him.

On the basis of this information and the discussion in the meeting, the author had taken various precautionary steps in different directions:


1)      His research at Sprengplatz in Berlin-Grunewald was to cease shortly[xii].

2)      He exercised great restraint when it came to passing information about his cooperation with "capitalist" enterprises in Germany and abroad to his collaborators.

3)      He accelerated the development of the Chemical Central Institute of the Brazilian Federal University in Santa Maria, RS [12, 9], to have a "way out" if necessary [see “re 13)” and “re 14)”] and SPECIAL PART D).



re 8)  FERDINAND SAUERBRUCH (illustration 2)


On several occasions, Professor Dr. Sauerbruch and lecturer Dr. Riemschneider (standing in for Professor Lohmann) tested medical students in the subject "Physiological Chemistry" together at the Humboldt University. After one such exam, Sauerbruch asked Riemschneider a question which the latter pursued and the answer to which led to significant results in the field of "activation of cell metabolism" and thus preparations used clinically.


In the years 1948 and 1949, the author stood in for Professor Dr. Karl Lohmann in lectures and examinations every now and then. By law, examinations of medical students in the subject "Physiological Chemistry" had to be attended by a full professor as co-examiner. As a result, the author made the acquaintance of several professors of the medical school in the course of time, including the famous surgeon Prof Dr. Ferdinand Sauerbruch (illustration 2). After that examination, Prof Sauerbruch asked the following question of his young colleague Riemschneider: "Tell me, young man, why do wounds heal more quickly when covered by fresh liver tissue, muscle tissue or placenta as we did in emergencies in field hospitals during the war, because nothing else was available?"


This was a question which the author continued to work on. It was obvious to him to make the connection with the ATP discovered by Lohmann. ATP meant energy10, more energy meant increased protein biosynthesis for wound healing. In other words, one had to look for substances increasing the ATP yield in the mitochondria. A discussion with Lohmann did not yield any results. He merely gave the author a penetrating and pitying look and said, thinking aloud: "You will see where this will get you."


His reaction was not as enthusiastic as the author had hoped. At least, however, he gave his permission to the author to involve Ms. Waltraudt Gerischer, an institute employee familiar with the WARBURG method, in experiments on "respiration enhancement" to find substances increasing the ATP yield. The author started  systematic research for components which incease the O2-uptake and in consequence the ATP-production in Berlin in the 40ies.

WARBURG experiments were carried out over many years to find substances having an accelerating effect on cell respiration (or inhibiting cell respiration, respectively). This research resulted in the development of an injection preparation by the name of CELLRYL on the basis of peptides obtained from blood in 1972 which was used clinically in Japan. This preparation was available commercially until the BSE crisis and could then be replaced by a special preparation obtained from yeast - patented in Japan & EU [38].





Dr. von Bergmann, MD, reader of the publishing house Dr. Werner Saenger, from 1959 curator of the Free University of Berlin; as such he gave considerable administrative assistance to the author during the period from 1950 to 1969.


Worth mentioning are:

The creation of a "Docentship for Organic Chemistry" with a separate budget at the Organic Institute of the Free University and then, after the author had been called from the United States to the newly established Chair for Biochemistry (1957), establishment of the Institute for Biochemistry housed in two different buildings.


In addition, Dr. von Bergmann helped the author against a former Nazi representative, Professor Jahr, Inorganic Chemistry.


At the instruction of the Nazis, Jahr - who held a golden party badge - and Professor Jander "ousted" the practical textbook of Jewish author Riesenfeld and replaced it by "Jander & Jahr." When Jahr's appointment to a chair was under discussion, the author was the only one who vetoed it. It goes without saying, that Jahr was informed posthaste [also see last paragraph “re 12)”].





Dr. Ronge arranged contacts with the Berlin industry in 1950 and thus initiated the so important Japanese connection for the author. The author had had already contacts with Japanese university institutions since his two monographs had been published. In 1958, the Japanese industry was added and brought much success.


Attorney for the defence Dr. Paul Ronge, a friend of Professor Dinghas, gave the author legal advice in the 1950s to help release the author from the time-consuming duty of lay judge. Soon afterwards, Dr. Ronge in turn was looking for a competent scientist for two of his clients to give an expert opinion on a production plant: these were the Professor Sauerbruch KG of Wolfgang Böttger and the company of Wolfgang Thober who produced Plazentubex.


Thanks to a 40 page opposing opinion regarding the current state of the placenta extract production of "Sauerbruch Präparate KG" (subsequently renamed BÖTTGER KG) in the basement of his castle at Ittendorf, the author was able to refute the expert opinion of pharmacologist Professor Herken which the complaint was based on.


The author was certainly competent on this subject because he had been conducting research on the topic of organ extracts for over 10 years. The shortcomings in Ittendorf the author complained about were remedied as a result of this opposing opinion by ensuring 100% sterile work and installing an explosion-proof basket-type centrifuge.


The positive outcome of this case encouraged Wolfgang Böttger to appoint Professor Riemschneider as head of research of BÖTTGER KG. In addition to many other duties, the author held this position for 40 years until 1997; as a result of Japan deals initiated by the author, BÖTTGER KG became BÖTTGER GmbH in the 60ies.


Until his death in the 1960s, Dr. Ronge was a good friend and attorney of the author, helping him out of tight spots more than once.


Once in a while, the author would pick up Dr. Ronge at his office and take him for a beer at the "Wilmersdorfer". On one such occasion, Dr. Ronge, chairman of the Free Democrat Party, voiced his concern about the era Brandt[xiii]. He knew what Brandt had written in 1935 in the magazine "Tribüne", namely that it was the aim of his life to "make Germany a communist country". Dr. Ronge showed the author the original version of this article.


Dr. Ronge came from East Prussia and worked as a defence attorney for many years. He told the author that he accompanied many clients sentenced to death to the scaffold in the years before the war. Interesting insights can be found in his book "Im Namen der Gerechtigkeit" [In the name of justice], Kindler, 1963.


Dr. Ronge was an extremely gifted lawyer and envied by many. Unfortunately, all efforts to get the university to honour Dr. Ronge have failed. His knowledge, his quick-wittedness and his sense of humour will never be forgotten by the author. When the author visited his office unannounced, he would greet him: "Well, dear Professor, what have you done now?" (Na, lieber Professor, was haben wir denn heute wieder angestellt?) or "Today, dear Professor, you do not look the part at all. What's the matter?" (Sie sehen heute aber gar nicht professoral aus…) Another of his sayings was: "Dear Professor, there are many things I can battle and help you, but I am powerless against perjury."


How many friends Dr. Ronge had - and how many he had helped at a very low fee - became evident at his funeral in Berlin-Dahlem. The mourners filled Hüttenweg for hundreds of meters all the way to Clay-Allee, something seldom to be seen.


After his death, the author learned that Dr. Ronge's widow was penniless. Dr. Ronge had "never thought about money". He had helped the author four times, but sent only one invoice in which the travel expenses Berlin-Mannheim-Berlin were the biggest item.


Once, the author was able to help Dr. Ronge, namely in the Burgmann case which had to do with E 605: PROJ XVIII in [1]: The information provided by the author led to acquittal from the charge of murder.



re 11) SCHERER


Dr. F. Scherer, known for the development of fluorochlorinated hydrocarbons (FREON), was department head and director of Farbwerke HOECHST and established the author's contact with that company in the 1950s, a cooperation which was to last for more than 20 years.


The chemical pest control department of Farbwerke HOECHST headed by Dr. F. Scherer, was interested in the author's work on hexachlorocyclopentadiene chemistry, i.e. the group of DIENE insecticides developed by the author, and acquired pertinent intellectual property rights with the author's aid. This also included the development of the insecticide THIODAN e.g. [11]. In the course of the years, the cooperation also extended to other fields as is shown by several patent applications. Details on the topic "Pest Control Research" and "Inventor fights" in PROJ  VI to XIII, XVII [1], [40] and  published 2005 in the Internet under [35].


According to the opinion of some representatives of German industry (HOECHST) and of competent scientists, nominated below, the discovery of the unexpected high reactivity of hexa-chlorocyclopentadiene with unsaturated compounds of all kind and of the insecticidal properties of pertinent adducts (M 410, C10H6Cl8) are entirely due to Riemschneider.

The justification of this opinion,  supported by the

-   Head board of Farbwerke HOECHST , under Director Dr                Scherer, Plant Protection,  and Dr.Beer, Patent Department

-   Nobelprice winners profs Dr A.Butenandt and Dr.Richard   Kuhn,  German Universities and Max Planck Institute,

was based on the facts summarised in SPECIAL PART J) and on the following background information:


When occupying Italy and Germany the fighting Allied Troups had looked intensivly for research material left behind: Here opportunities were as well in Brindisi, Prag, Bottrop (RUHRÖL), and in Jena University Institutes; to mention here also the confiscated correspondence which Riemschneider had via Red Cross with the USA in 1942/43, concerning C5Cl6. So, it is rather sure that the VELSICOL Corporation, Chicago, could have received hints as to the German activities in C5Cl6-chemistry (Riemschneider ‘s results) – to develop the M 410-competiter Chlordane: See essay “pestcontrol” cited in [19] and in [11b]. Further comments on this matter in  SPECIAL PART J).





Prof. Dr. W. Lautsch, Organic Chemistry of the Free University (1950)


As already pointed out above, none of the chairs in Chemistry at the Free University had suitable incumbents - or were perceived as such (in the opinion of Dinghas, Schütte and Kuhn). For example, Prof. Dr. W. Lautsch who held the chair for Organic Chemistry, conducted biochemical research (enzyme issues), but no pure Organic Chemistry - as opposed to the author who published continuously in the field of Organic Chemistry[xiv] and then - as a delimitation against Lautsch and against the latter's will - received a "Docentship for Organic Chemistry" at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, but represented research and the teaching of Biochemistry, primarily not to get in the way of the Organic specialist. Merely on a proforma basis, the chair for Physical Chemistry was filled by Iwan Stranski, a renowned physico-chemist, but unfortunately all the lectures were held by Prof. Vetter, an electrochemist; the chair for Inorganic Chemistry was filled with an analyst, namely Prof. Dr. Jahr. The term UNIVERSITAS had been lost to some chairholders even before the so-called democratisation.


The conflict between Lautsch and Riemschneider briefly mentioned above was inevitable. Lautsch's research was unsuccessful, despite a large staff and sufficient funds. He fell ill and had to give up after a few years (Psychiatric Clinic). In a faculty meeting, Lautsch only agreed to the appointment of the author (working in the United States at the time) to the Chair for Biochemistry if two Nobel Prize Winners agreed to give a recommendation. This condition was met by Kuhn and Butenandt (1957).


As a result of his often uncontrolled behaviour, Professor Lautsch had made many enemies so that numerous people testified against him after his nervous breakdown, these testimonials being collected by the FU administration. The author was the only one who did not testify against Lautsch (illness excuses much), even though he would have had sufficient reason. With the aid of his friend, defence counsel Dr. Ronge, the author succeeded in refusing to testify against Lautsch as demanded by the Academic Senate (1960). This was to have beneficial consequences: After Lautsch recovered and returned to work, he helped the author build up the subject BIOCHEMISTRY and separate it from the subject Organic Chemistry. Unfortunately, Lautsch died soon after his "recovery" and the author had to continue "battling" against Jahr as mentioned above.


Jahr, Head of the Institut of Inorganic Chemisty FU Berlin, but only specialist in Inorganic Analytical Chemistry, “represented” the subject Organic Chemistry after the death of collegue Lautsch (1962) and should have held the main lectures in Organic Chemistry (demonstration lecture with 48 lessons per term)  offered in the “Personal- und Vorlesungsverzeichnis der FU in the 60ies“ under the heading “Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Vorlesungen Chemie” : Table 1. Since Jahr was incapable of this (given his specialisation in Inorganic Chemistry) he approached the author with the request to hold this demonstration lecture. In return, he offered to guarantee independence of Biochemistry. Nevertheless, Jahr fought against the author until his death.

Continued in blue letters after Table 1.



Table 1:

Vorlesungsankündigung FU


Organische Experimentalchemie

für Chemiker, Lebensmittelchemiker, Physiker, Biologen, Pharmazeuten, Lehramtskandidaten, Mediziner, Zahnmediziner, Veterinärmediziner, Geologen, Mineralogen

Mi, Fr  12-14


The author gave an excellent experimental lesson in spite of only short preparation time (three weeks before start asked from Jahr) and in spite of accident of his main assistant (motorcycle crash: Eberhardt Riedel).

Four of his doctoral candidates helped voluntary to prepare the experiments. Thanks here again to the co-corkers then already “Diplom-Chemiker” for sacrificing a whole term: K.Brendel, E.B.Grabitz, H.Kampfer, and D.Kirstein. All of them became successful chemists with the appropriate Dr. title.  


For a long time, there were three unmarried colleagues in the Mathematical Scientific Department of the Free University: Dinghas (Mathematics), Hinderer (Astronomy) and Riemschneider (Chemistry/ Biochemistry). This alone gave Professor Jahr enough reason to imply that we led a "loose life". What an irony, that it was he who died in a porn cinema: Dinghas had informed the author by telephone in his heavily accented German (because Greek was his mother tongue): Mr. Rimmenschneider, imagine, colleague Jahr is dead - of all things, he died in a porno movie."




Under the heading "Dr. Werner Saenger Publishing House", it had already been pointed out that the publication of the two monographs "What there is to know about contact insecticides I & II", 1st ed., published 1947 and 1949, respectively, resulted in numerous important contacts both in Germany and abroad, most of all  Brazil,  Japan, and Italy.



Contacts in  Brazil:


13)       Professor Dr. Richard Wasicky, sen.

            had been trying to recruit the author for Brazil from 1950 onwards (first invitation 1954) and established the contact with USM in 1962. The author has been connected to the USM, later UFSM (Federal University) from 1962 until today.


Professor Wasicky, University of Vienna, Pharmacy Department. He was honoured with the „Orden Pour le mérite für Wissenschaft und Künste“ decoration and driven out of the country by the Nazis in spring 1938. He emigrated to Brazil via Paris and lectured at the University of S. Paulo and simultaneously from 1962 onwards, at the University of Santa Maria (USM, UFSM) in Rio Grande del Sul. Thanks to his universal knowledge, he was able to teach the subjects Pharmacy, Chemistry, Botany and Pharmacognosia.


Wasicky told the author details about his escape and about a certain Dr. Gerhardt Schenck who - in uniform at the time - had been the first to notice Wasicky's absence. This Schenck held the chair for Pharmacy at the FU in Berlin from 1949 onwards - at the old Mannich Institute where the author was a guest for several years. In other words, this man was well known to the author. It is a small world.




Illustration 3:

Professor Wasicky (left) with the author



The extensive knowledge of Professor Wasicky was demonstrated, for example, on walks taken with the author in Rio Grande do Sul. He knew the name of every flower, every plant in German, Portuguese and Latin (botany) plus the most important ingredients and their application (pharmacognosy) including pharmacy (galenics) and chemistry. The chemical composition could be discussed in detail; the author was in charge of synthesis and analysis.


The author learnt a vast amount during these unforgettable walks and wishes he could have benefited from Wasicky's wisdom even longer. Unfortunately, the latter died before the opening of the Chemical Central Institute organized by the author on behalf of UFSM (USM) between 1964 and 1972. It is a great pity that Professor Wasicky's name does not appear on the commemorative plaque unveiled on the occasion of the inauguration (1973; Plate 2a), even though he initiated the whole project by bringing the author together with the vice-chancellor of the university, Mariano, in 1962: Plates 2a,b


Plate 2a shown here:







Plate 2b:   Text of the commemorative plaque





                        MINISTÉRIO DA EDUCAÇÃO E CULTURA





























                              BERLIN FREIE UNIVERSITÄT







Wasicky's wife accompanied him on all his trips from São Paulo via Porto Alegre to Santa Maria and back over many years (at the expense of USFM) and was a great help to him in advanced age.


Her brother, pharmacologist Professor Dr. Joachimovicz, also taught at UFSM, and the author worked with him successfully over many years.


Wasicky's son, Dr. Richard Wasicky jr., who had been born in Austria taught the subject Pharmacognosy at the University of São Paulo. Over the years, he became a true friend to the author and, knowing all Brazilian idiosyncrasies, gave him valuable advice.


His hobby was flying. He had his own plane, and in 1970 we flew over S. Paulo in his Cessna PT-AXI. From the air, I was able to grasp the true dimension of this huge city situated in a pan which had 16 million inhabitants even then. We flew West to the Serra, then down towards Santos and the ocean - a wonderful spectacle in good weather.


In closing, here a few words about the author's first visit to Brazil in 1962: On his ship's voyage from Hamburg to Buenos Aires, the HAPAG-LLOYD ship anchored in Santos for four days. He used this opportunity for his first personal meeting with Professor Wasicky in S. Paulo. At the time, a old rack-railway connected Santos and S. Paulo. The author will never forget this romantic tip in an open car with cliffs dropping several hundred meters to the right.

More about the authors stays in Brazil in SPECIAL PART G).       


On this occasion, the author would like to point out that he saw many cars fuelled with ethanol (PETROBRAS) instead of gasoline during his visits to Brazil in the 1970s. It is also worth noting that, via the industry, Santa Maria had offered the author a side product obtained in large quantities from the production of ethanol from sugar cane for research, the so-called "vignette" (results secret). - In the meantime, all of the cars in Brazil are constructed in such a way that they can be fuelled with ethanol and gasoline in any desired proportion.


In other words, the Brazilians recognised early on that alternative energy sources to oil and atomic energy must be found. Unfortunately, this was not the case in Germany. As can be seen today, even the oil crisis in 1973 did not have any lasting effect in the author's own country. For a long time every single opportunity was missed; also see "Alternatives to atomic energy and oil"  2006, 7p



re 14)   Professor Dr. José Mariano da Rocha Filho


For many years, he was vice-chancellor of the Brazilian University Santa Maria, USM (Reitor da Universidade de Santa Maria), from 1964, the Federal University, UFSM (Universidade Federal de Santa Maria). At the same time, he was director of the university teaching hospital specialising in surgery. At the instigation of Prof. Dr. R. Wasicky and Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R. Kuhn, he invited the author to hold lectures on different topics.


In response to this invitation, the author held the following three lectures in three different languages in 1964:


No. 1:   "Spatial structure and activity of chemical compounds" in  Englisch,

No. 2:   "La chimica degli insetticidi di gruppo DIEN" in Italian,

No. 3:   "New yeast cell preparations" in German with simultaneous translation


which belonged to the PROJECTS VII, XI and XXII [1]. That this last lecture was held in German is due to the fact that most of the audience did not have sufficient command of English and Italian.


This invitation was based on the desire to recruit the author for the University of Santa Maria. After the first two-week visit to Santa Maria and numerous discussions with members of the university, the authorities, the military, the church and the industry, the author was asked - rather, given the assignment - to organize a Chemical Central Institute, i.e. to establish it and to start teaching all branches of Chemistry according to the German role model. This he did from 1964 to 1973. During his second visit to Santa Maria in July 1965, the author submitted a detailed 136 page plan regarding the organisation of the desired Chemical Central Institute: Plates 3a and b. This plan was accepted, translated into Portuguese right away and published as an independent paper under the direction of the Ministério da Educação e Cultura Universidade Federal de Santa Maria [12]. During the following 10 years this plan was put into realization.


Then until the nineties, annual visits [see SPECIAL PART G)] to Santa Maria and RORAIMA followed with the approval of the Government in Brasilia. Personal meetings and lectures took place in the capital Brasilia, in 1965, 1970 and at Christmas 1974, always in the company of vice-chancellor Professor. Dr. José Mariano da Rocha Filho; activities in RORAIMA see [31].      


Plate 3a

Title page of the publication

[USM (until 1963)], UFSM (1965), 136 pages [12]









Plate 3b:

Organogramm of the Chemical Central Institute, page 5 in [12]


In SPECIAL PART D), the planning of the Institute is described in detail in the lectures I and II held in Portuguese.

















































Progress of the building of the Central Institute in illustration 4.


Illustration 4: Central Institute under construction, amphitheatre, front left


In 1965, the author had one and a half buildings of 115 m length, 15 m width with three floors at his disposal for planning, organising and building the Chemical Central Institute of UFSM.


The planned amphitheatre (front left) was opened as early as August 16, 1968 - with a commemorative lecture delivered by the author with the title: "Metabolismo intermediario", paper published in 1973; Plate 4







Illustration 5: Professor Mariano (left) with the author





 Plate 4:          



Title of the publication of the commemorative event "Inauguração do Anfiteatro da UFSM" baseada  em uma conferencia,  realizada em 16 Agõsto 1968, Ministério da Educação e Cultura, UFSM (1973), 31 pages


Text of page 2: Aula teórica de “Introdução a Bioquímica e Prática básica da Bioquímica”, baseada em uma conferencia realizada pelo de Agõsto da 1968 para a inauguração de Anfiteatro da UFSM e compleada Agõsto de 1973. Conferencista: Prof Dr.rer.nat., Dr.h.c.R.Riemschneider,

Diretor Coordenador.




The author did not accept the call to Santa Maria, but, for more than 20 years, spent two months in Brazil annually and became a member of the university faculty as an honorary professor in 1973. Starting in 1967, the author taught in Portuguese at UFSM and produced many curricula in this language (University Printers). After receiving the above-mentioned appointment, the author studied Portuguese for several years so as to be able to teach in this language; cf. [34] and illustration 6.


Illustration 6: The author during the inauguration lecture in the "amphitheatre": Plate 4. The Plate behind the orator is shown as     Plate 10c at the end of this publication.


Mariano, as the vice-chancellor was called by all his friends, was a very special person. He had a vast knowledge which far exceeded his actual subject, medicine. He gave excellent lectures in his native language, but also in English. His talent for organisation brought prestige to the university, and his strong sense of humour helped considerably.

One example: Mariano just returned from a trip to Japan as the author arrived from Germany, which was celebrated by a festive reception with a Galetto dinner: In a few words, Mariano brought the big difference between Japan and Brazil to the point: "If you pay a visit in Japan and enter a house, you take off your shoes. In Brazil, you take your hat off."


In 1973, the author was awarded the title "Dr. honoris causa"[xv] as well as the title of Professor h.c. which made him a full member of the faculty of the university; also see comments in SPECIAL PART D) and the documents copies in Plate 11a,b.


The vice-chancellor, a surgeon by training and head of the university teaching hospital for many years, brought high standing to the university founded by his father. A genuine friendship had developed between Mariano and the author over the years resulting in cooperation in several fields. Also see the essay published in the Internet:  "Thalidomide - A remedy with two faces", dated 2004 in [13]

and  [31]

under the title: "Plant technology based on chemistry, botany, and architecture", 2008.



[This concludes Part I of the three-part series in which this paper appears; Part II will appear in the upcoming November-December 2008 issue]




[i]    On September 12, 1940, the Editorial Board of the Italian periodical  "Gazzetta Chimica Italiana" received from the author in Italian language the paper "Derivati acetilici di combinazione isocicliche – Nota I. o-, m-, p-diacetil benzolo" as the first scientific publication of the author, asking for later publication. -  According to his wish, the paper was not published until after the war in the "Gazzetta Chimica Italiana 77, 607-611 (1947)". Copy of this paper in ref.(35) in PROJ I [1]; details about            o-diacetylbenzene also in reference of footnote 4.


[ii]    „religious education“ in Nazi jargon meant „Weltanschauung“


[iii]   Evidence: the worst mark in my Highschool diploma (Abitur): D [ausreichend]


[iv]   cf. o-Diacetylbenzene (o-Di) and some analogues in amino acid analytics and as markers in criminalology  o-Di competitor of ninhydrine?  May 2006, 25 p: PROJ I in [1]


[v]    At the recommendation of Fritz Riemschneider, one of his father's brothers


[vi]   Organisch-chemische Experimentierkunst, by C. Weygand, publisher Johann Ambrosius Barth. Leipzig, 1948. 2nd ed. Leipzig, 824 pages, 258 illustrations. At the request of his widow, the book was revised by Dr. Siebenmarck and Dr. R. Riemschneider. For many years, the main work was carried out by Dr. Siebenmarck, the author contributed to several chapters.

Here a remark regarding the intrigues after the second edition was published:

After the book came on the market, Dr. Siebenmarck had hoped to participate in the financial gain - he did not receive a penny. The author was unable to help his friend Dr. Siebenmarck, because there were no legal provisions and no contract with the widow. Since Riemschneider had other income and had not expected any financial reward for himself, he had not thought about putting anything down in writing. The widow was clever and had a plan ready in advance: Without the knowledge of Dr. Siebenmarck, she had deleted the words of thanks to the author written by Dr. Siebenmarck during the proof-reading process.

As already mentioned in PROJ IX 1 ref (548), the author had the intention of helping Dr. Siebenmarck escape from the Soviet Occupation Zone in 1948/49 and to recruit him as a collaborator at the Physiological-Chemical Institute of the University of Berlin, i.e. to work with him scientifically. Unfortunately, family circumstances forced Dr. Siebenmarck to remain in Leipzig.

After 1953, i.e. after the GDR came into existence, leaving without authorisation would have been illegal emigration - very dangerous -, and the FU where the author worked by then, had little money at the beginning. So the situation remained as it was.


[vii]   The pick of the bunch of Jena scientists had been taken along when the American occupation forces left Thuringia and left idle for rather a long time in Heidenheim an der Brenz (The exchange was Thuringia and Saxony for presence in Berlin).


[viii] The physicist Dr. Capella whom the author had come to know and like a few months before was among those deported (The friendship started with the loan of a suitable resistor for adjusting the speed of a KPG Stirrer). Dr. Capella suffered from a nervous disease which caused permanent movements that could not be controlled. He escaped by jumping from a moving train. Because of his condition, the Soviets had not expected that he would make an attempt to flee and not guarded him properly. The escape was successful.


[ix]   This title “Diplom-Chemiker” came into being very shortly before that date. Until then, it read "2nd association exam in chemistry".

[x]    This means phosphate esters like ATP, GTP etc. with a higher group transfer potential according to the definition of R. Riemschneider [8]. The group transfer potential describes the ability in biochemistry to store chemical energy in bonds. All living beings need energy in the form of ATP, GTP, TTP etc.  This energy must be replaced in the same quantity as consumed. The term "group transfer potential" is generally used to describe the direction of the energy flow: the more negative the ΔG (expressed as the free standard enthalpy ΔG°), the more exergonic the reaction. For the synthesis of ATP from ADP (GDP from GTP) therefore, phosphorylated metabolites with high group transfer potential are needed. On the other hand, ATP is capable of phosphorylating metabolites like glucose, because it has a higher group transfer potential than the resulting glucose phosphates. Group transfer onto an acceptor is smooth whenever the reaction is exergonic, i.e. when the free enthalpy change has a negative sign. If one desires to compare the ease of group transfer for different systems, a reference compound is required as the acceptor. Water was chosen as such a reference compound so that the received data should be rated as change of the free standard enthalpy during hydrolysis; cf. also Plate 7-9.


[xi]   At the invitation of Professor Einstein, Professor Dinghas  was visiting professor at the university of Princeton over a longer period of time in the 1950s.


[xii]    see ref [31]: Plant technology

[xiii] In the authors opinion, it would be discounted during that era that one cannot spend more money than one has. How right he was, is best shown by a joke told to the author by a Munich taxi driver on the way from the airport to the Patent Court: "Federal Chancellor Brandt has been nominated for a Nobel Prize for the second time, this time for Chemistry, because he converted the D-Mark into shit” (Chemistry is the science of substance conversions). When the Brandt administration came to power, the country was free of debt, then!


[xiv] For example, in over 100 original organic chemistry papers published between 1951 and 1959 in scientific magazines such as Mh. Chem., Z. Naturforschg., Chem. Ber., etc.; cf. [1].


[xv]   Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Richard Kuhn was also awarded the title "Dr. h.c." by the University of Santa Maria.


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