The African American Communist

and His Allies

by Terence L. Johnson

Former Professor, African and African American History

Former Field Archivist

United States


Link for Citation Purposes:


Andre Toth hated Communism as it was practiced in the Soviet Union and his native country, Hungary.  Andre Toth remembered many unpleasant things about living in an eastern bloc nation. Thousands of Hungarians died as Soviet Union Tanks mowed across the streets of Budapest, spreading Communism while the United States repudiated the Soviet Union’s crimes against humanity. He remembered the rain when it fell down on him while he was put in a holding cell by the Communist secret police after participating in the 1956 Budapest Youth Rebellion.  A gun had been pressed against his head and he was offered a chance to confess his role in the rebellion to free Hungary of Communism. [1]


It was later discovered by the secret police that the slightly-built, dark haired man was only a minor operative. Andre remembered the rain drizzling on him when, after a few days, he emerged from holding a free man. He also remembered saying “farewell” to his mother in Paris as he prepared to leave for the United States. His brief stay in a holding facility was embellished by a press that desired a romantic story about a refugee who escaped from the evils of Communism. Toth had joined the resistance to fight the Soviet Army when the Soviets invaded Budapest, but not for long.  It was after being imprisoned by the Communists that Toth hid in his parents' home and later got a fake identification card and posed as an actor to get to Hungary’s western border and onto the set of a film. Once he got to the border, he a few of his friends fled into Austria. Supported by the American Voluntary Agency and Catholic Reliefs services, Andre Toth made his way to New York City where he entered into an extensive English program. [2]   Three professors from South Carolina’s Allen University arranged for Andre Toth to attend Allen University. [3]


          Andre Toth told an American newsman that in Hungary he did not receive a college education because such opportunities were reserved for members of the Communist party.  [4] Years later he revealed the fact that this had not been the case. He had failed to pass an entrance examination at the Budapest Academy for Theater and Film Art.  At Allen, he accepted an art scholarship and lived in Arnett Hall with other undergraduate men. Before Toth arrived on campus, two white faculty members were hired, making the college the first higher education institution to have a racially diverse faculty in South Carolina since the 1920s. Soon after his enrollment at Allen University, he was visited by the FBI who suspected that he might be a spy for the Soviets and interrogated him for several hours before letting him return to the university. In spite of his war against the Communists in his country, Andre had been called a “trouble maker and a “Communist spy” by segregationist whites who probably labeled any Eastern European with an accent, as a threat to capitalism. [5] Some whites even hung an effigy of Allen University’s first white student as they stood at the institution’s gates shouting hateful racial slurs. [6]


But there were other moments that the Hungarian immigrant participated that showed that some Americans could accept a person of a different color and nationality without question.  Andre Toth, from Hungary, the first white student ever to enroll on any African American college in South Carolina, attended St. Martin de Porres Catholic Church, which was located on 2229 Hampton Street in the Waverly community. In an interview, when asked about racism, Toth revealed, “I have no right to comment on your internal affairs….you can say I believe in freedom, that all people are the same; that injustice is not confined to any one country…..I am happy here at Allen and intend to remain here.….…”God loves all men alike, and I try to do the same.”   When the Institute of International Education offered to transfer Andre to another college, the Hungarian freedom fighter wrote a letter to them in which he stated “I have examined the situation here and found that I am breaking no law….I have decided to stay.”[7] One of the most radical things that Andre Toth did was convince several Hungarians stationed at Fort Jackson, a military base not far from Columbia, to attend a dance at Allen University populated by African American men and women.  This was an act that enraged many in the city’s white community.


          Andre Toth had learned about America’s race problem when had attended his high school in Budapest.  He had learned to pretend a certain amount of innocence when he was in his adopted country, but Andre Toth had been able to relate the struggles of the Hungarian people with the struggles of African Americans in the United States.  The Hungarian student was well aware of the white and African American professors on Allen’s campus who wanted to become acquainted with him.  However, he kept his distance from these communist-inspired professors in an effort of not to come across as a trouble maker.  Later, with the support of the Hungarian Student Program of the Institute of International Education in New York, several more Hungarian students were attending Allen University. [8] Andre Toth had not been the only person at the two African American institutions who seemed to invite trouble.


          President J. A. Barcoats, of Benedict College, a historically African American institution of higher learning in South Carolina, invited members of his faculty who had been accused being Communist to prove their innocence or be removed from the college. [9] President Barcoats was also accused by Governor Timmerman of being a Communist because “he ‘may’ have consented to the use of his name in promoting a ‘Protestantism against hate dinner-forum’ in New York in 1941 by the publication, the Protestant Digest.” That publication was known to be the mouthpiece of a socialist organization. [10] In response to Timmerman’s claim, president Barcoats wrote, “We sincerely hope that is not the general policy of the governor of South Carolina to label as Communist….citizens of the state who do not accept and agree with the governor’s point of view on race and human relations.” [11]


            At Benedict College, great attention was paid by Timmerman to the white members of the school’s faculty.  In March of 1957, Dr. Horace Bancroft Davis, a white professor who worked in the English Department at Benedict College and served as a discussion leader at one of the Palmetto Education Association’s Council on Higher Education, resigned from his teaching position. Dr. Davis was also being investigated by the Senate Internal Security subcommittee. [12] But Davis also had a history of patriotism. During World War 1, Horace Davis, a conscientious objector, served with the American Friends Service Committee in France in the Haverford Unit. Trained on the Haverford College Campus, the Haverford Unit, composed of about a hundred men, engaged in relief and reconstruction in France.  But Davis also wrote for the National Guardian.  Created in New York City in 1948, this independent weekly newspaper, advocated many of Dr. W.E.B. Dubois' beliefs about the best political system of government for world populations.  The newspaper opposed the Cold War and the Korean conflict, while supporting anti-colonial developments in Africa and Asia. Dr. Dubois, an African American historian, sociologist, and political scholar confessed in a letter to Dr. Horace Davis which stated:


          “I, also, am a great sympathizer with Marxism and have taught it while I was a teacher. I recognize, however, that today there is no place in the United States where I would be allowed to teach.” [13]  


Dr. Horace Davis wrote a letter, dated January 23, 1954 to the famous Marxist W.E. B. Dubois. In that letter, Davis confessed to Dubois that “I am a college teacher, a Marxist, who just lost his job.”  At the time of his letter to Dubois, Dr. Davis had been fired from his position of Professor of Economics at the University of Kansas City. In a letter dated January 25, 1954 Dr. Horace Davis went on to state to Dubois:


“I am a Harvard A.B., Columbia Ph.D., 55 years old. The doors of practically all white colleges will I feel sure he closed to me from now on. I have a long experience in connection with the labor movement and labor is my special subject. I would be glad of any suggestions you might care to offer.”[14]


 Marian Davis, the wife of Horace Davis, who also worked as a professor in the English Department at Benedict college, received a letter from Dr. W.E.B. Dubois stating, “I have been following with difficulty the fight at Columbia…I am glad to know of the work of your students and wish that more of that kind of research could be made.” The research Dr. Marian Davis had her students engaged in greatly impressed one of America’s greatest scholars.


In a letter dated June 4, 1958 written to Dr. Marian Davis:


“I am glad to know of the work of your students and wish that more of that kind of research could be made.”[15]


 Dr. Horace Davis had strong associations with communist and leftist organizations.  Not only did Dr. Davis read the Guardian, but as he informed Dr. W.E.B. Dubois in a letter dated February 22, 1957:  “I have had a surprising number of inquiries on subjects student have generally avoided. I gave out some copies of the Guardian, and think maybe some group will result.” In other words, Dr. Horace Davis was actively involved in promoting a Communist agenda to students at Benedict College and tried to influence students with that publication [16]



          Governor Timmerman had been right.  At least one professor at Benedict College had distributed literature that promoted a communist perspective and many others had associated with leftwing groups that advocated peace over war. In March of 1957, Dr. Horace Davis resigned his position from Benedict College. He and Marian Davis could be easily ousted from their teaching positions because they both lacked tenure [17]


In a special message to the South Carolina Legislature, the governor made the claim that the presidents of both Allen and Benedict brought “students in the teacher training programs of both institutions will be brought under the influence of Communist workers and wives of Communist workers on its faculty.” [18] In Timmerman’s January 16, 1958’s Fourth Annual Message to the South Carolina General Assembly, he noted that, “Recently, however, especially since last fall, most of them have been typical CP projects and campaigns through classroom lectures, forum participation and in distributions of literature, and in writings.” [19] CP in Timmerman’s message referred to the Communist Party.


When Governor Timmerman mentioned “them” in his annual message, referred to a few professors who work on Allen’s campus. Although many newspapers tried to make Timmerman’s assertions about Communist professors to be an attempt to curb the efforts to desegregate public education and institutions of higher learning, there was quite a bit of evidence to support his claims. At Allen there was Dr. Edwin Hoffman; Chairman of the school’s Division of teacher Education, who encouraged Negro students to protest against Segregation.  Then there was John G. Rideout, the Chairman of Allen’s Humanities department.  And then there was Forrest O. Wiggins, an African American, who served as a philosophy instructor was accused by the president of the college of criticizing religion in a chapel discussion, changed a student’s grade, and questioned the academic skills of Allen University students. [20] The governor went on to state what he believed to be the fundamental problem of the alleged communists on the two Negro campuses.


 “It is believed that the presence of Communists at these two Negro institutions is in furtherance of a long range program to promote racial hatred among young and impressionable Negro students looking toward an ultimate Communist goal of creating civil and racial disorder.” [21]


For Governor Timmerman, the mere presence of white men and women as teachers threatened the racial harmony of all of society.  In his view, the political beliefs and actions of the six professors at the two colleges, which questioned the segregation of the races, caused civil and racial disorder. Democrat Governor George Bell Timmerman, Jr. became aware of the alleged communist activities at Allen University of two white professors and one Negro professor. [22] Allen University officials reported that the problem involving Communism on campus developed when Dr. Edwin Hoffman, Dr. John G. Rideout, and Dr. Wiggins began “projects and campaigns through classroom lectures, forum participation and in distributing literature, and in writings.”  The two white professors, including Dr. Forrest, Wiggins had associations with Dr. Dubois, who was known for activity to advance the cause of socialism, which was an idea advanced by the economic theorist Karl Marx. [23] 


Dr. Forrest Onan Wiggins.  Born in Vincennes, Indiana in 1907, Dr. Wiggins received his Bachelor of Arts degree at Butler University in Indianapolis, and went on to receive a certificate in French from the Sorbonne, a prestigious university in Paris. In 1931, he received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin.  Wiggins also served as an advocate of strong United States and Latin American relations. In 1946, on a U.S. Department of Education protect, Wiggins spent months teaching English in Haiti. Beginning in 1946, he became the first Negro to serve as a member of faculty at the University of Minnesota, before being fired in 1952. Dr. Wiggins, hired at Allen University, became a member of a small number of professors at that institute with a doctorate degree.  Dr. Wiggin’s criticisms of Capitalism was well known due to the fact that his statements regarding that form of economic organization had been printed in several publications. [24] In fact Wiggins in the National Guardian newspaper was quoted as saying,


“I am a socialist in that I believe in state ownership of the means of production. I believe that the people should have control of their economic destiny, the same as their political destiny.” [25]


The Index-Journal newspaper reported that Forrest Wiggins, also a member of the Platform Committee of the third national convention of the progressive party, had been considered by some government officials to be influenced by communists.  The article in that newspaper also disclosed that Dr. Forrest Wiggins’ contract at the University of Minnesota had not been renewed because he was “adjudged to be lacking in the qualifications giving adequate service to the university in the years to come.” [26] Dr. Wiggins believed he had been let go from the University of Minnesota because of his “The Ideology of Interest” speech.  Dr. Wiggin’s speech said in part: 


“The present conflict in this world today is not a conflict between democracy and Communism; the present conflict in the world today is between capitalism and socialism…..the domination of the white race over the rest of the word is no longer possible…The most powerful leader of capitalism is the United States; the most powerful leader of socialism is the Soviet Union….” [27]


A Negro like Dr. Wiggins believed that socialism was but a shadow of capitalism.  As its shadow, socialism served not so much as a solution to the weaknesses of capitalism, but more as an agent for critiquing capitalism as an exploitive system that greatly advantaged predominately white nations over colored nations.  


Still, Dr. Wiggins had made the same ideological errors that famed scholar W.E.B. Dubois had made.  The Soviets did not represent the vision of socialism envisioned by Karl Marx.  But everywhere that Karl Marx’s vision was tried by a country, it ultimately led to the death of millions of a countries citizens. No country in the world has ever successfully brought forth socialist practices that provided the common good of their populations but instead brought forth very oppressive practices. If Dr. Wiggins had let his argument against the United States rest, he might have endured little or no persecution.  But he lived in a country which had been developed on the assumption American capitalism was the highest form of government that any society could ever attain. It had been suggested in virtually all the institutions of higher learning in the United States that peace came from republican forms of government that engaged in warfare against its enemies.   Dr. Wiggins in his speech entitled “The Ideology of Interest” he said,


“Everywhere a faculty member is a petty business man looking out after his own interest and security with a consequence that the educational function has largely disappeared, lost in the morass of writing articles, book reviews and textbooks and buying groceries.  The faculty members do not seem to know enough to see that the integrity of the human race is involved as well as the institutions of culture.” [28]


Wiggin’s speech along with his support of socialism made the government put him on a list on the House Un-American Activities Committee. [31] This committee, organized by members of the United States House of Representatives, was created to investigate individuals and groups that supported the cause of spreading Communism in the United States. [32]


          Leaders of Allen and Benedict failed to support teachers who fought to end the United States’ imperial capitalism around the world.  The two Negro institutions failed to understand the relationship between racial discrimination and international oppression.  Professors at the two historically colored colleges, white and Negro, had been willingly sacrificed to keep the appearance of being legitimate liberal arts institutions. In August of 1957 the three professors from Allen University, which included Forrest Wiggins, received an academic year’s notice; Toth would not return to college. [33] The local newspapers implied that white professor John G Rideout, chairman of the Division of the Humanities; and white professor Edwin Hoffman, chairman of the Division of Teacher Education had affiliated with communist organizations. [34]


          Hoffman’s student, Jane Simon, remembers Dr. Rideout and Dr. Hoffman as two white teachers that helped Negro students.  Simon said, “I will never forget those two names. I will never forget those names. And when we marched for our Civil Rights, they were marching on the front line along with us. They tried to arrest those two men.  …The article that I have tells you that there were white teachers from Allen from the North, who they said causing problems.  But they told us, we were in our social studies class sitting down looking at the marches in Alabama and Mississippi, and the dogs being sicced on their people there, and Dr. Hoffman said to the class, why are you just staring and not doing anything.  The same thing happening to you here in South Carolina.  What are you going to do about it?”  And that very day, we started doing something.” [35]


          Dr. Rideout might have been more than altruistic in his efforts to help African Students on Allen University’s campus.  In the March 1956, Volume VIII-No. 14 edition of the Palmetto Education Association Journal, Dr. Rideout is listed in a Department of Higher Education program as a consultant. [36] If Communist desired to infiltrate the education of African American institutions of higher learning, serving as a consultant would be in a good position to begin that process.  Dr. John G Rideout, also served as chairman of the Division of the Humanities, which could serve as a critical position for changes to the curricula that might lean toward a Marxist ideological interpretation of the past and present society. Dr. Rideout’s Communist leanings were suspected when between 1956 and 1957, when he objected to a “proposed visit to the Allen campus by a group of fourteen Hungarian Freedom Fighters.”  In other words, men who had experienced Communism and who opposed its implementation in society [37]


          Dr. Rideout, a former Rhodes Scholar and former professor at Idaho State College, was listed in several House Committee files concerning communists.  According to the Tuesday, August 6, 1969 edition of the Index-Journal, Carl W. McIntosh, the president of Idaho State argued that “’flamboyant’” political material appeared under Rideout's name in the Idaho Pension League publication, an organization McIntosh termed leftist.” [38]


          Governor George Bell Timmerman, Jr. of South Caronia in his Fourth Annual Message to the South Carolina General Assembly, without using their names, exposed college professors in Columbia, South Carolina who allegedly espoused Communist ideologies and who possibly participated in the agenda to infiltrate and corrupt America’s youth. For example, an investigation of communist activities led to evidence that Allen University had records of actually information that demonstrated that Dr. Rideout had an extensive file in the House of Un-American Activities Committee of Congress. According to the Allen record, from 1947 to 1949, Dr. Rideout led the New Hampshire Progressive Party, dominated by the Communist Party.  In 1949, he was forced to resign from the University of New Hampshire due to his political views and political activities.  In 1950, he had a subscription to the Daily Worker a Communist newspaper.  Then in 1952, he became involved in the American Peace Crusade a Communist organization. In 1953, he was forced to resign from Idaho State College because of his Communist leanings. [39] Professor Edwin Hoffman, chairman of the Division of Teacher Education had an affiliated with communist organizations. [40] It was Dr. Hoffman who had made the arrangements for Marxist W.E.B. Dubois to give a talk at Allen University, which Dubois gave on the virtues of Marxism and the Soviet Union on February 11, 1957. [41] Again being in charge of the education was a good place that a Communist might use their influence to indoctrinate a generation of teachers.


          Numerous articles from allegedly communist-inspired publications served as evidence of the two white professor’s communist leanings. The Index-Journal newspaper reported that Forrest Wiggins, also a member of the Platform Committee of the third national convention of the progressive party, had been considered by some government officials to be influenced by communists.  In January of 1957, President Dr. Frank Veal, received information on two white professors Edward Hoffman, John G. Rideout, and Negro professor Forrest Wiggins that later became known as the “Allen Report.” Dr. Veal presented this report to state officials which eventually was received in the hands of Governor Timmerman. Much of this information came from the files from the House Un-American Activities Committee, which was created by the U.S. House of Representatives to uncover the existence of Nazis in America.  Timmerman also noted regarding the three suspected Communist at Allen University that they “recently, however, especially since last fall, most of them have begun…projects and campaigns through classroom lectures, forum participation and in distributing literature, and in writings.” [42]


          A bill was introduced in the State House and Senate which set up a six-man committee, composed of state congress members, to investigate the activities of the Communist in South Carolina. [43] What resulted from the investigation was the decision In September of 1957 by the State Board of Education took away Allen University teacher certification. [43] This meant that students who graduated with education degrees could not teach in South Carolina. [44] This ruling was made with governor George Bell Timmerman blessing.  No specific reason was given for this decision.


          When a representative of the American Association of University Professors inquired to the reason why certification had been denied the institution, According to that representative, the Governor Timmerman replied back saying, “It is none of our business and that our authority to question the action of the South Carolina State Board of Education is non-existent.” [45] According to Governor Timmerman, the American Association of University Professors, “claims to be an accrediting agency, but has more of the appearance of a political pressure front” [46]


          Timmerman further believed that the presidents of both Allen and Benedict were cooperating to influence students with Communist ideologies. He also attributed this Communist ideology with the agenda to promote racial hatred among the student body at those colleges.


          However, Allen University’s admittance of Hungarian refugee students to its student body as well as the eventual dismissal of three professors with affiliation to Communist organizations or communist ideologies probably served as the factors for the Governor and the State Board of Education’s decision. [47] The South Carolina State Attorney General Commented that “’It is against public policy’ to integrate whites and Negroes in South Carolina but ‘there is no law in South Carolina to reach’ Allen’s acceptance of white students.” [48] The potential Communist threat probably played an important role in the removal of certification from the university. Another factor that greatly impacted the integration of white students on historically as well as the addition of white professors on these same campuses was the rise of the movement of African American students to enter the University of South Carolina. This movement was really an outgrowth of the Teacher’s Rights Movement in South Carolina (circa 1920-1970s). These two movements led to the Civil Rights Movement [49].


          In 1938, the white majority University of South Carolina blocked the admission of a Negro law student. Then on July 1946, John H. Wrighten, with the support of the Palmetto Education Association and NAACP leader John Hinton, brought a case to court in which he was denied admission to the historically white University of South Carolina Law School. [50] Although he did win his case, a segregated law school was built for John H. Wrighten and other African Americans at South Carolina State, a historically African American college. [51]


          Wiggins along with the two white professors, attended a meeting with the State board and Allen officials concluded that the officials “surrendered completely to the demands of Governor Timmerman.”  Because of their communist leanings the two white men, including Forrest. Wiggins were fired from Allen. [52]


          In the Wednesday, August 7th edition of the Index-Journal Dr. Frank Veal, stated that both Rideout and Hoffman did not have tenure and therefore could be fired. However, Dr. Wiggins had achieved tenure at Allen University for five years and therefore could only be released from his contract only after being given a Trustee hearing. Dr. Veal further stated that the three men should be removed from their positions at the university because they were not serving the needs of that institution; was “to train people for religious worked and to give them a Christian education.” [53]


          Instead of resigning, Wiggins requested a hearing.  Wiggins also wrote the American Civil Liberties Union in New York.  He argued that he being a Negro was being classified with white professors as communist by the college president, to hide the fact that Governor Timmerman not only desired to eliminate liberals from the College, but also maintain racial segregation among the faculty. Wiggins requested information about a lawyer in South Carolina who might advise him and the other white professors accused of being communist.  


          But Forrest Wiggins was in fact a self-proscribed socialist. The Internal Security subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee discovered that he belonged to the Platform Committee of the Third National Convention of the Progressive Party, which was a radical anti-Capitalist organization. [54]


          On April 27, 1958, Wiggins was evicted from his Allen University apartment, three days before the institution’s commencement.  A year later, in September 1958, Andre Toth did not return to the Allen University, but rumor suggested he considered enrolling in an institution in New York State.  According to the October 29, 1958 edition of the Greenville News, the Baltimore Afro-American reported that Allen University’s policy ensured that the former Hungary student “found the doors closed to his return.” [55]


          The truth was far more interesting than rumor.  Before Toth came back to Allen for his second semester, after working as an elevator operator and bus boy in New York, he was not allowed entrance into a dorm room. He had been informed that his attendance at the Negro institution endangered the teaching degrees of the majority of the students.  Pressure from the governor and the white press to maintain the segregation of the races, forced the university officials to deny him entrance into Allen a second year.  Instead of an invitation to continue with education in Columbia, Toth received from Allen University a scholarship which allowed him to attend another historically Negro institution, Wilberforce University, located close to Dayton, Ohio.


          Academicians like Dr. Wiggins spent the rest of their lives as part-time employment professors, estranged from affecting the intellectual development of academia. Soon after he and other suspected Communists left Benedict College and Allen University, the State Board of Education reinstated Allen University’s Teacher training program. [56]


A Perspective Conclusion:


The Negro colleges of South Carolina were again fully segregated and exempted Negro students from the benefits of funding that poured into white institutions of higher learning. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the spread of Communism, which was a real activity on the two historically black campuses, was mitigated in the early periods of the Civil Rights Movement. However, the Communist ideology, often called Marxism, or socialism, eventually permeated American society by infiltrating several human rights organizations and integrating portions of its worldview in the public education system of the United States. The trend of viewing the United States as an inherent unequal society has been used to redirect the American population educators away from the high ideals of its founding fathers, who in spite of their flaws, sought to bring about the freest nation known in human history.  The Communism of old espoused class struggle as the means by which Communism might take root in America.  Class struggle as a weapon, however, failed to blossom as a useful tool due to the fact that class and opportunity was so fluid in Western Republics.  However, class struggle has taken a new form under the heading of social justice and identity politics. With these two tools at play, they would be  considered victims, be they based on gender or race, can always be viewed a victims regardless of how affluent these groups become. Consequently, they have become the perfect foil for the alleged failure of modern Republics and the triumph of Communism, Marxism, and Socialism.




1. Andre Toth is Unhappy in the Rain, The Afro American, September, 28, 1957.

2.  Ibid.

3. Hungarian Refugee Due to Enroll As Freshman At Allen University, The Index-Journal, Thu. Sep 12, 1957; The Gaffney Ledger, Sat, Sep 14, 1957.


4. Hungarian Refugee Due To Enroll As Freshman At Allen University, The Index-Journal, Thu, Sep 12, 1957.


5. Hungarian Enrolls in Southern Negro School, Panama City News-Herald, Sun, Sep 22, 1957, page 5.


6. Hungarian Refugee Due to Enroll As Freshman At Allen University, The Index-Journal, Thu. Sep 12, 1957; The Gaffney Ledger, Sat, Sep 14, 1957.


7. Refugee Student Toth Declines Transfer Offered by Allen U, The Index-Journal, Sat, Sep 21, 1957.

8. The Gaffney Ledger, Thu Sept 12, 1957.         

9. The Gaffney Ledger, Tue, Feb 11, 1958. 

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. The Index-Journal, Tuesday, March 26, 1957.

13.  From Credo: Letter from W.E.B Dubois to Horace B. Davis, February 5, 1954.

14. From Credo:  Letter from W.E.B. Dubois to Horace B. Davis, February 5, 1954; From Credo: Letter from Horace B. Davis to W.E.B. Du Bois, January 23, 1954; From Credo Letter from Horace B. Davis to W.E.B. Dubois, January 25, 1854.

15. From Credo: Letter from Dubois to Marian Davis, June 4, 1958; Credo: Letter from Marian Davis to W.E.B Dubois, May 6, 1958.


16. From Credo: Letter from Benedict College from W.E.B.  Dubois from Feb 22, 1957.

17. The Index-Journal, Thu May 8, 1958.

18. Benedict Plans To Seek Proof From Teachers, The Gaffney Ledger, Tue, Feb 11, 1958; Negro Schools Have Communist Faculty, Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 30, 1958; The Gaffney Ledger, Thu, Feb 20, 1958.

19. Allen Professor Trouble Aired Before Legislature, Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 16, 1958.

20. The Index-Journal, Wed, Jan 1, 1958; Allen University Executive Board Meeting of May 15, 1958).

21. Allen University Executive Board Meeting of May 15, 1958.

22. FBI Reveals 17 Known Reds Working in S.C., Florence Morning News, Sat. June 18, 1958.

23. Credo;  Letter from W.E.B. Dubois to Forrest O. Wiggins, April 19, 1928; Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Allen University, January 3, 1957; Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Allen University, January 7, 1957;  Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Allen University, January 15, 1957;  Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Allen University, January 20, 1957;  Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Forrest O. Wiggins, June 11, 1957;  Letter from John G. Rideout to National Committee to Defend Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois and Associates in the Peace Information Center, May 1, 1951; Letter from John G. Rideout to National Committee to Defend Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois and Associates in the Peace Information Center, December, 14, 1951.


24. The Militant, New York, N.Y. Monday, June 2, 1952.

25. National Guardian-The Progressive Newsweekly, Vol. 4, No. 11, New York, N.Y. January 2, 1952).

26. Refused to Reign Professors Dismissals, The Index-Journal, Tue, Aug 6, 1957.

27. “What is Property?” American Socialist, September 1955.

28.  Ibid.

31. Denied to Negro School Teacher Certification, The Gaffney Ledger, Thu, Sep 12, 1957, p. 9; page 8; Florence Morning news, Friday 3, 1958.

32. Harry S. Truman Papers: J. Parnell Thomas to Harry S. Truman, September 29, 1948.

33. The Gaffney Ledger, Thu Sept 12, 1957; Citation for Toth.

34. The Index-Journal, Wed August 7, 1957.

35. Video oral Interview of Jane Simon in possession of the author of this article; Terence L. Johnson.

36. Palmetto Education Association Journal, March 1956, Volume  VIII-NO. 14. 

37. American Association of University Professors, Allen University Executive Board meeting of May 1958, page 97.


38.  Index-Journal, August 6, 1969

39.  Fourth Annual Message of Governor George Bell Timmerman, Jr. to the South Carolina General Assembly, South Carolina State Library May 18, 1992, State Documents, Columbia, January 15, 1958, page 11-12.


40. The Index-Journal, Wed, August 7, 1957.

41. Letter from Dubois to Hoffman, January 7, 1957; Letter from Dubois to Hoffman, January 15, 1957; Letter from Hoffman to Dubois, Jan 20, 1957.

42. Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 16, 1958.

43. The Gaffney Ledger, Thur, Feb 20, 1958.

44. Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 16, 1958.

45. The Gaffney Ledger, Thu Sept 12, 1957).

46. The Index-journal, Thu Jan 2, 1958.

47. Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 16, 1958.

48. The Index-Journal, Wed, Jan 1, 1958.

49. The Index-Journal, Tuesday, September 10, 1957.

50. Florence Morning News, Thu, Jan 30, 1958; Pots, Sr., John F. A History of the Palmetto Education Association. Washington DC: National Education Association, 1978.”;Williams, Cecil J. Out-of-the-box in Dixie: Cecil Williams' photography of the South Carolina events that changed America. Orangeburg, SC: Cecil J. Williams Photography/Publishing, 2010.


51. Walker Solomon Collection, Executive Meeting, May 14, 1955;  Minutes of Meeting of House Delegates, Thursday Afternoon, March 27, Lecture Room, Flipper Library, Allen University [1947,]No. 2603; Letter from John H. Hinton to John Potts,  March 24, 1947, No. 2595) [53] (John H. Wrighten v. Board of trustees of the University of South Carolina, et al 1947 Case No.: 1670)


52.  American Association of University Professors, Academic Freedom and Tenure: Allen University and Benedict College, page 87, Spring of 1960.


53. The Index-Journal, Wed, August 7, 1957.

54. The Gaffney Ledger, Thu Sept 12, 1957.

55. The Index-journal, Tue Sept 16, 1958.

56. Florence Morning News, Sat June 28, 1958; The Gaffney Ledger, Tue July 1, 1958.