Science: Human Creativity:
Freedom of Cerebral Activities
from What the Brain Has
by Mr. Tetsuo Kaneko, Inst.Gov.
East Katsushika Institute, Japan
Link for Citation Purposes: https://bwwsociety.org/journal/archive/freedom-of-cerebral-activities.htm
The COVID19 pandemic has enabled us to see a sophisticated and curved path on which researchers must have selected for succeeding in a breakthrough related to a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Various breakthroughs are linked to things or ideas which are interesting and difficult for many researchers and for accomplishing or which are found from pathways that are located outside of categories of normal thinking styles. Although breakthroughs will be interesting, accepting them cannot soon be reached. Specific breakthroughs for estimating climate change that is caused by an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere have not sufficiently been accepted yet although estimating the climate change is based on scientific methods. Considerable developments of science, which started in 20th century, depend on cerebral activities that are allowed to become free from refusing the pathways that must have been selected for accepting hypotheses on quanta, the relativistic theory, and the evidence of atomic existence, which is linked to the path toward the mRNA vaccine. Understanding due to the daily experience must encourage ordinary people to reject the relativity of time. However, accepting it allowed the establishment of GPS and the establishment of a specific technique that uses a muons penetration method.
In comparison with things that can usually be easily and simply imagined, an idea that will results in a breakthrough must seem strange. Accepting the idea is not allowed according to normal activities of the cerebral organ. Despite this, an awareness of the idea is valuable because it allows cerebral activities to go toward a new stage. Having accepted the existence of atoms enabled the relationships between the gens and DNA molecules to be established, and allowed awareness of epigenetic phenomena. Although all 37 trillion cells forming the human body are clone, epigenetic phenomena allow features of these cells to be classified into 270 categories. Forming the tissues and the organs including the cerebral organ is allowed by epigenetic phenomena.
Furthermore, epigenetic phenomena allow us to understand that it is meaningful to raise the capability of cerebral activities for inhibiting unusual activation of the amygdalae. The sublimely noble spirit of sports that is symbolized by respecting mutually, behaving mutually fairly, and treating mutually fairly contributes to the capability of cerebral activities which control activation of the amygdalae. Hence, making the sublimely noble spirit of sports become clearly impressive should be a main role to which the Olympic Games contribute for all the societies on the Planet. Entertainments concerning performances based on the sublimely noble spirit of sports must allow us to mutually confirm the will to strongly preserve the stable sustainability of the civilization. The will yields special cerebral activities that allow the stable sustainability of the environment of the Planet to be preserved. (This article is a summary of a book written in Japanese by the author.)
[I] Things and Ideas Obtained from Several Breakthroughs and Observations
Beyond Simple Images Connected with Illusions
Seeing the body of an astronaut floating inside of the international space station may allow activities of neuron networks in the cerebral organ to make a specific image representing that there is no gravitation in the space. Coincidently, it is possible for activities of neuron networks in the cerebral organ to generate awareness that the gravitation between Sun and Earth exists. Everyone can be aware of a scientific inconsistency of the former image with the latter. A situation where gravitation disappears in the international space station corresponds to a phenomenon that occurs within a space vehicle that is moving in orbit with stopping engines. The situation corresponds to the relation between two spheres that were being dropped at the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Illusions symbolized by an image representing that there is no gravitation in the space can be generated by cerebral activities in various cases. Infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the Planet is partially returned to the surface by CO2 molecules in the air. This understanding is held by activities of neuron networks in the cerebral organ as a scientific recognition. Coincidently, it is possible for activities of neuron networks in the cerebral organ to make awareness of unusually high temperature of the air in summer, awareness of incidents of fire in mountains every year, and awareness of unusual climate phenomena symbolized by the occurrence of huge tropical cyclones. Despite this, it is not rare to produce a specific illusion based on normalcy bias that allows cerebral activities to generate the hope that the environment of the Planet will remain normal. The hope encourages cerebral activities to select a way to refuse the fact that an increase in the amount of CO2 molecules in the air causes the climate change.
An increase in the number of CO2 molecules in the air strengthens the infrared radiation that is returned to the surface of the Planet, and causes an increase in the temperature of the sea surface; it causes an increase in the number of H2O molecules that are transferred from the sea surface into the air. Next, H2O molecules can go toward upper positions because a H2O molecule is lighter than an O2 molecule and an N2 molecule. At high altitudes, H2O molecules condensate and form clouds; after raining, the air becomes dry. These phenomena generate specific regions suffering from extremely much rain and other specific regions becoming extremely dry. This situation gives huge damage to agriculture. Then, the Planet does not permit sufficient amount of food to be produced. This is a big issue indicated by IPCC. The inhibition of the occurrence of unusual climates is necessary based on a decrease in the amount of emission of CO2. Happiness that should be established in the society in each region on the Planet must depend on a situation where the stable sustainability of the environment is preserved. Reports of IPCC encourage people to think what kind of situation corresponds to their happiness that is consistent with the reality of the Planet.
Making cerebral activities become free from illusions formed by common sense is necessary for allowing our recognition to approach the reality of the environment. Making the cerebral activities generate images being consistent with real phenomena must be aided by science. This is not a role of technology. Unless forming images that are consistent with real phenomena is enabled, a stable sustainability of the civilization and a stable sustainability of the environment both cannot be preserved.
Meaning of Enabling the Muon Penetration Technology
An image concerning the relativity of time is consistent with a real phenomenon. Cosmic rayon being in the space includes protons having extremely high energies more than 10 trillion electron volte. An energy releasing from each elementary chemical reaction occurring during the explosion of dynamite is only a few electron volte. This fact allows us to understand that the protons hold extremely high energies. The collision of the protons with nucleus of atoms in the air located at high altitudes allows pi-mesons to be produced. Next, the decay of the pi-mesons generates muons having extremely high energies more than one trillion electron volte. Such high energy muons come continuously toward the ground from everywhere in the sky. The awareness of the existence of high energy muons coming from the sky allows the technology related to penetration images of special objects to be established. According to the technology, it is possible to obtain a penetration image of a magma reservoir under a volcano, a penetration image of a pyramid, a penetration image of a nuclear reactor etc.
The thickness of the convection aria related to atmospheric phenomena is about 10 km; the stratosphere covering the convection aria is about 40 km in thickness. Because the close section of a nucleus is about 10-26cm2, high energy protons included by cosmic rayon are not allowed to penetrate the atmosphere. Hence, muons are generated in the upper area of the atmosphere. The mean life time of a muon having minus charge is 2.2 microsecond; a minus muon decays to an electron, a mu-neutrino, and an anti-electron neutrino. The mean life time of a muon having plus charge is 2.2 microsecond; a plus muon decays to a positron, an anti-mu-neutrino, and an electron neutrino.
The length through which light can pass for 2.2 microsecond is only 0.66 km, although even the thickness of the convection aria is about 10 km. Hence, the mean life time of a muon must prevent muons generated in the upper area from reaching the ground. Despite this fact, the muons enable penetration images of pyramids and penetration images of magma reservoirs to be obtained.
The speed of a muon that is generated from the collision of high energy cosmic rayon with a nucleus is extremely close to the light speed. Then, the relativistic theory requires the life time of the muon to become considerably longer than 2.2 microsecond; it allows us to understand the fact that a large number of muons reach the ground. The rate at which time passes at an object depends on the relative speed between the object and us. Images that we can obtain in our daily life encourage us to understand that the rate at which time passes inside of an airplane going abroad is the same as the rate at which time passes inside of a building. However, such images generated by cerebral activities being acceptable in daily life are not exactly consistent with the realities of phenomena.
Awareness Obtained from Pandemic
Attempts to form precise images that are consistent with realities found from observations or measurements and attempts to unify the precise images, these attempts aid us in succeeding in finding an unknown way toward a breakthrough. However, forming the precise images is not easy. An article “The Tangled History of mRNA Vaccines (Nature , Vol 597, 16 September 2021)” mentions that works for finding an unknown way toward a breakthrough concerning mRNA vaccines were very hard; the difficulty of the work made researchers spend a lot of time and it discouraged companies, laboratories, and universities from continuing to accept researches for mRNA vaccines. Many researchers could not have understood “which is a hopeful way toward a breakthrough concerning mRNA vaccines”, and “what is a hopeful candidate for the way”, even if many experiments were repeated. The experiments resulted in failures. Each failure must have been analyzed to obtain some hints for solving problems. Ultimately, having made efforts to understand the meaning of each failure for a long period more than 30 years allowed Katalin Karikó and coworkers to succeed in finding a way toward a breakthrough concerning mRNA vaccines.
A primitive image formed at the initial stage can allow motivation for accomplishing a breakthrough to be generated. However, cerebral activities must be made to become free from the primitive image when analyzing a failure after doing an experiment. Being free from the primitive image can permit another hopeful image to be formed. This can raise the possibility of finding an unknown way toward the breakthrough. If cerebral activities are not free from the primitive image that is not consistent with a reality found from an experiment, the cerebral activities must allow rejecting a specific way along which the breakthrough will be accomplished at the final stage resulting from different cerebral activities. Even if the probability of rejecting the way does not become zero, the COVID19 pandemic permits many people to be aware of a great advantage of the breakthrough concerning mRNA vaccines.
Recognizing Extremely Large Molecules
Intuition created by Lucretius who lived 99 BC – 55 BC indicates that accepting the reality of atoms yields the way to explain all natural phenomena consistently. The intuition continued to contribute to the development of scientific consideration as a hypothesis. It allowed various phenomena including chemical reactions to be explained consistently.
However, we must be aware of a requirement that makes cerebral activities free from considering atoms as hypothetical objects. Brownian motion of colloidal particles observed via a microscope must be caused by movements of small molecules. Cerebral activities that are made to be free from considering atoms as hypothetical objects allow accepting the fact that the existence of atoms is real. Considering atoms as real objects permits us to imagine three dimensional structures of molecules. The cerebral activities allow us to imagine interactions between extremely large molecules such as DNA molecules, RNA molecules, and protein molecules.
Images formed in the brain depend on features of cerebral activities, and cerebral activities are affected by images formed in the brain. Directions of development of technology must depend on the formed images. Also, characteristics of pathways along which its development should go must depend on the formed images. Without images of extremely large molecules contributing to biological phenomena, it is impossible to establish a technic for producing mRNA vaccines.
37 Trillion Clone Cells
Although each DNA molecule is a double helix polymer that is formed by linking adenine molecules, guanine molecules, thymine molecules, and cytosine molecules, real DNA molecules contained in the nucleus of each cell are modified chemically. The real DNA molecules include methylated cytosine molecules having a methyl group CH3. The real DNA molecules are methylated.
At methylated portions in a DNA molecule existing in a cellular nucleus, methylated-DNA-bond-protein molecules are bound, and they prevent these methylated portions from being transformed to mRNA. Then, the methylated potions do not work as genes. This phenomenon allows 37 trillion cells being clone to be classified into 270 categories. When analyzing all human genes was achieved, the methylation of DNA molecules was not recognized. Now, DNA methylation enzyme contributing to the methylation of DNA molecules is identified. De-methylation enzyme contributing to the elimination of methyl groups from a methylated DNA molecule is also identified.
Dependence of the Methylation of DNA Molecules on Experiences
Starvation experienced for a period and bad habits continued for a certain period both can continue to negatively influence health conditions for a long period. This means that changes in conditions of the methylation of DNA molecules can negatively contribute to the health condition. It is incorrect to consider that usages of genes are independent of experienced starvation, bad habits, extremely unusual situations similar to wars, etc. Cerebral activities should be made to become free from recognition confirmed before being aware of the methylation of DNA molecules. The fact that usages of genes can be changed depending on experiences needs to be accepted.
Starvation experienced in the period of a fetus can remain clear marks in genes as changes in the methylation condition of DNA molecules. Health damage caused by a change in the methylation condition of DNA molecules continues to be maintained for a long period. According to an article represented by a group of researchers in Science Vol. 345, Issue 6198, 2014, adverse environment in womb of an undernourished pregnant mouse can alter DNA methylation of male germline cells, and as a result it can alter the condition of DNA methylation related to adult sperm; adverse prenatal environments can cause metabolic disease even in subsequent generations. In producing processes of sperm and ovum, the condition of DNA methylation cannot be reset. In the stage of embryo also, the condition of DNA methylation cannot be reset. Physical and mental health conditions in subsequent generations can be negatively affected by serious experiences from which the first generation suffered.
Altering the Methylation of DNA Molecules
Special substances, which are exemplified by hormones, cytokines, exosomes etc., are produced as messenger substances by cells consisting of each organ. Cells transmit information on their states to other cells via messenger substances to normalize or harmonize cellular activities. Then, it is possible to be altered the conditions of DNA methylation in cells as effects induced via messenger substances, of which the synthesis depends on features of microenvironments surrounding each cell. The conditions of DNA methylation depend on features of the microenvironments. If cells receive hopeful messenger substances suitably, the condition of DNA methylation remains normal. If cancer cells receive hopeful messenger substances correctly, it is possible to change the cancer cells into normal cells, because a cancer gene resulting in chicken tumor is made to become inactive after the cancer gene is injected into a chicken embryo. Thus, it is possible to normalize the condition of DNA methylation causing cancer cells.
According to Mina Bissell, suitable characteristics of each cell can be induced through meaningful communications between cells that are allowed to form their suitable three-dimensional arrangements. Thus, Mina Bissell and coworkers demonstrated that tissue architecture restored to cancer cells makes their cancer genomes become inactive in a special gel mixed with extracellular matrix that provides biochemical signaling support (according to TED conference 2012).
The fact that oncogenes in cancer cells become inactive should be caused by the methylation of the oncogenes. On the contrary, the occurrence of a cancer is allowed in one of two cases: a case that the oncogenes are not methylated; the other case that a suitable tumor suppressor gene that should be demethylated is methylated.
Microenvironments surrounding each cell of organs are formed with involving message substances. Features of cells in each organ in a body are influenced by changes in the microenvironments. The changes can be linked to experiences of the body. Phenomena concerning epigenetics involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, etc. can depend on the experiences. Thus, features of cells can be altered by the experiences. Serious conditions from which the body is suffering can influence features of cells. There is a possibility that serious conditions allow cancer cells to be generated. There is also a possibility that they allow mental diseases, metabolic syndrome etc. to occur.
Hydroxylation that occurs for methyl groups of DNA molecules carried by nerve cells is allowed although additional methylation and demethylation may not occur for DNA molecules carried by the nerve cells. Hydroxylation for methyl groups of DNA molecules corresponds to demethylation of the DNA molecules (Globisch et al., PLOS ONE 5, 0015367, 2010; Tahilani et al., Science 324, 930-935, 2009). On the contrary, the occurrence of dehydroxylation for the DNA molecules corresponds to methylation of the DNA molecules. Hence, suitable methylation of DNA molecules and suitable hydroxylation of methyl groups of DNA molecules should be hopefully aided in occurring for nerve cells to avoid mental problems.
Specific Living Things Preferring Hard Things that Cannot Be Eaten
Living is equivalent to eating for every living thing on the Planet. Programs concerning this are maintained by DNA molecules. Despite this fact, there are living things that really like special things that cannot be eaten. The living things are human-beings. DNA molecules of the human-beings are methylated to make them prefer special things that cannot be eaten. In fact, media reacted strongly with the biggest stone of blue sapphire that is 310 kg. It was discovered in Sri Lanka in December 2021.
Sapphire is a crystal of aluminum oxide, which melt at 2072 degree Celsius, and it becomes vapor at 2977 degree Celsius. The vaporization temperature of diamond is 4827 degree Celsius. The temperature at the center of an atomic bomb during its explosion is about 2.5 million degree Celsius. The temperature at the center of a hydrogen bomb during its explosion is about 0.4 billion degree Celsius. Therefore, sapphire and diamond both can be vaporized suddenly by both an atomic bomb and a hydrogen bomb during their explosions.
A current technology permits us to cheaply obtain highly purified aluminum oxide crystal, which is valuable for industries producing the base of microtip. Highly purified diamond produced by mean of the chemical vapor deposition method has high electric resistance and high thermal conductivity and is used for the base of LED and the base of semiconductor RASER. It is much more valuable for industries than natural diamond including impurities.
For running the current civilization, aluminum oxide crystal found in nature is much less valuable than metal aluminum. At present, clever investors must think that ceramic industries using aluminum oxide and metal industries concerning metal aluminum and its metal alloys are better for investing than jewel industries. However, the condition of DNA methylation, which is an inheritance before establishing advanced technology, may encourage people to preserve a specific character that causes them to prefer natural diamond and natural sapphire including impurities. When climate change causes disaster to destroy agriculture, everyone on the Planet will understand what is the most important thing.
Epigenetic Phenomena due to Food Crisis Giving Suffering to All Living Things
People living in principal cities in western Holland including Amsterdam suffered from a cold winter and severe situations caused by lack of things for eating. Just before the end of the World War II, Natis enclosed the cities economically. Serious starvation that was caused by this economic enclosure gave suffering to people living in western Holland. The starvation caused seriously low calorie conditions for people including children and pregnant women. Health conditions of people suffering from the starvation have been observed and investigated for 74 years from the end of the war. The investigation into the health conditions is continued still now.
The investigation allows the relationships between illness and the starvation to be found. Results of the investigation are shown in an article “DNA methylation as a mediator of the association between prenatal adversity and risk factors for metabolic disease in adulthood (Science Advances Vol.4, January 2018)”. The results of the investigation demonstrate that epigenetic phenomena determining usages of DNA molecules cause illness and changes in health conditions.
Unfortunate Epigenetic Changes Induced by Serious Conditions
A severe situation where there is no food allows conditions of activities of genes to vary with changes in conditions of DNA methylation. Negative conditions of health such as autism, metabolic syndrome, etc. can be induced as specific influences of starvation, and can remain during the life of people who experienced the starvation.
The risk of inducing unusual methylation of DNA molecules within nerve cells must be higher in the period of an embryo and that of a fetus than in other periods. Thus, adult people who experienced starvation in the period of an embryo and that of a fetus have a high risk of suffering from a mental disorder such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, clinical depression, etc. Unusual methylation conditions of DNA molecules can be maintained by each cell in the body of the next generation as the epigenetic inheritance. Serious conditions caused by starvation, wars, etc. can allow unusual changes in methylation conditions of DNA molecules to occur, and the epigenetic inheritance can allow mental and physical health conditions of future generations to be influenced negatively. It is possible to avoid the negative changes in methylation conditions of DNA molecules if people have the will to make negative factors with influence on DNA methylation become negligible.
Mental and physical environments that allow conditions of DNA methylation to remain adequate connect to both a situation that permits a stable sustainability of the civilization and a situation that permits a stable sustainability of the environment of the Planet. On the contrary, justifications for conflicts accompanying the use of force can allow human-beings to go toward a hopeless pathway that allows an unfortunate situation concerning epigenetics to become a more unfortunate one.
Serotonin and Oxytocin are remarkable neurotransmitters, which aide in reducing anxiety, fear, and irritation with suspicion. These neurotransmitters help our cerebral activities to preserve a stable sustainability of the civilization. A large amount of serotonin is produced in digestive organs. This fact demonstrates that eating is a source of happiness for living things including human-beings. Things that can be eaten are much more valuable for preserving a stable sustainability of the civilization than diamond and sapphire. Climate change can considerably reduce agricultural productivity. The will to try to reconsider a serious situation where there are not sufficient things for eating should continue to be carried. Thus, a way being fortunate should be selected via cerebral activities that are made to be free from what have been accepted in the previous situations.
[II] For Confirming Effects of Oxytocin
For Reducing Activation of the Amygdalae
In the cerebral system, two small nerve systems called amygdalae have dopamine receptors at a lot of synapses. If dopamine receptors of the amygdalae trap dopamine molecules, the amygdalae are activated. The activation of the amygdalae makes the cerebral system generate sadness, anxiety, and fear. As a result, their activation can allow aggressive consciousness and aggressive behavior to be caused. Then, the activation makes cortisol molecules released into blood. The activation makes adrenaline molecules also released into blood. Specific effects of cortisol and adrenaline may allow anxiety and fear caused by a relationship between two cultures to be developed into serious conflict between them. Lacking in food does not allow serotonin to be sufficiently produced in digestive organs. Then, reducing the activation of the amygdalae can become difficult. Moreover, if there are several factors that allow the activation of the amygdalae in the society, serious lacking in food may permit the risk of losing a stable sustainability of the civilization to rise. Thus, it is necessary to intensify the capability to increase possibility that cerebral activities performed by neuron networks involving the amygdalae allow the activation of the amygdalae induced by some reasons to be reduced.
The society must aid in raising the above capability. The society should accomplish a suitable role for aiding in reducing an unusual activation of the amygdalae in the society. It is necessary to organize a situation where effects of serotonin and oxytocin can percolate sufficiently in the society. Making these effects socially percolate is equivalent to aiding in reducing the activation of the amygdalae socially. This can contribute to preserving the sustainability of the civilization stably.
We can be aware of the fact that we have not succeeded in identifying specific electromagnetic waves, which living things having advanced technology in our galaxy employed for communicating with each other. This situation may mean that a civilization supported by developed technology cannot avoid being unsustainable as a destiny. In other words, even if living things have the capability to develop technology, they may not have the capability to improve a situation where activities of nerve systems corresponding to the amygdalae have a tendency to become easily unusual and uncontrolled.
For primitive living things having no technology, activities of the amygdalae are inevitable for noticing danger, for avoiding it, and for surviving. However, developed living things that have atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, etc. will encounter fatal results unless cerebral activities are performed with a high ability to control the activation of the amygdalae. Therefore, it is necessary to allow serotonin and oxytocin to work for cerebral activities sufficiently and socially. A particular function for which effects of serotonin and oxytocin are socially induced should be accomplished by entertainments for aiding in reducing the activities of the amygdalae.
Extremely anxious pressure and extreme fear that are generated by activities of the amygdalae in a specific field such as a battleground can result in strong and clear images that are not erased. These images do not allow cerebral activities to remain normal, and can result in PTSD. Anxious pressure and fear that remain over a long period can induce unusual changes in conditions of DNA methylation as a reaction. Then, we must notice that it is possible to transfer these changes to the next generations genetically.
A situation where activation of the amygdalae remains unusual allows cortisol molecules and adrenaline molecules both to continue to be released into blood. The society must prevent this situation from being encouraged in the society. Moreover, epigenetic effects caused by the situation should be avoided for preserving the stable sustainability of the civilization.
Accumulating negatively psychological effects induced by unusual activation of the amygdalae in the society is not hopeful. Reducing the psychological effects should be aided healthily by entertainments based on the sublimely noble spirit, and it should be made become a hopeful inheritance, which allows the stable sustainability of the civilization to be preserved. It is greatly valuable to hold such entertainments even in the pandemic of COVID19.
If a food crisis caused by climate change prevents serotonin from being sufficiently produced in digestive organs, an important potential for reducing the activation of the amygdalae is lost. Then, dopamine molecules that something causes to be produced can raise the potential for activating the amygdalae easily. If dopamine molecules trap dopamine receptors, the activation of the amygdalae can cause an aggressive reaction.
According to the experience of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, it is important to make an effort to understand the origin of consciousness causing conflict while cerebral activities are made to become free from the aggressive consciousness. Then, the cerebral activities can work as activities of neuron networks that are not made to be limited. The cerebral activities for understanding the origin can aid in forming neuron networks for generating the high degree of virtue that is characterized by a sublimely noble spirit as symbolized by what a player and an opponent respect each other even during their competition. Preserving the stable sustainability of the civilization and the stable sustainability of the environment of the Planet depends on the degree of virtue formed by cerebral activities. It is impossible to preserve these if everyone accepts an aggressive condition under which people on the Planet throw away respect for each other or trust in each other.
Effects of Oxytocin
Carefully analyzing the origin of an aggressive reaction should correspond to an effort to make effects of oxytocin participate in cerebral activities. Reducing the activation of the amygdalae can be aided via effects of oxytocin. In other words, the activation of neuron networks that participate in producing oxytocin can help cerebral activities to become free from activating the amygdalae. Efforts to induce effects of oxytocin can allow neuron networks to be developed for going beyond the limit of the cerebral activities with aid of nerve growth factors. Oxytocin can help nerve cells within the hippocampus to increase although a stress hormone, cortisol, shrinks the hippocampus and weakens the function of the hippocampus. Moreover, oxytocin can activate nerve cells that induce effects of serotonin, and also oxytocin can improve the activity of prefrontal cortex, which aids in behaving socially and considering socially.
As an interesting effect, oxytocin can encourage oxytocin to be produced. Cerebral activities that allow oxytocin to be produced can allow oxytocin to be more produced. The Cerebral activities can permit an unusual activation of the amygdalae to be reduced as experienced by Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela.
Cerebral activities in which effects of oxytocin participates must be aided by a sublimely noble spirit and a sublimely noble philosophy that encourage people to make respect for each other and trust in each other. Entertainments supported strongly by the sublimely noble spirit and the sublimely noble philosophy should allow oxytocin to be produced in individual cerebral organs. Holding an international festival that provides such entertainments is meaningful to preserve the stable sustainable civilization.
[III] Social Roles of Sports in the Olympic Games
Even in 21st century, human-beings realize that they are living things which have a tendency to easily induce unusual activation of the amygdalae and they are the fiercest and the most dangerous animals on the Planet. Hence, people wish to try to hold worldwide entertainments based on the sublimely noble spirit, and they wish to spread the sublimely noble philosophy on the planet.
A stressful situation where the body suffers from a negative influence depending on strong anxiety, fear, and irritation with suspicion can allow changes in conditions of DNA methylation to proceed negatively. In the situation, a role of entertainments for reducing negative feelings is important. Holding an international festival of sports symbolized by the Olympic Games is equivalent to an effort to reduce negative feelings globally. Furthermore, holding it corresponds to an effort to provide the highly respectable and noble spirit of sports to the global society. The society, IOC, and athletes participating in the festival well understand how their performants, their behaviors, and their thoughts should contribute to the efforts, according to their messages.
Practically Philosophical Performances Aiding in Reducing Activation of the Amygdalae
The sublimely noble spirit is connected with fairness and a feeling of admiration for opponents. Even if cerebral activities and physical activities are activated by cortisol and adrenaline, competitions corresponding to sports proceed with the activities of the amygdalae that are controlled by the sublimely noble spirit. Thus, the sublimely noble spirit shown by athletes through their efforts to make the competitions valuable carries excellent potential for leading to the sublimely noble philosophy that encourages people to coexist mutually fairly on the planet. Athletes understand that they should be regarded as philosophers practicing and representing the sublimely noble spirit rather than as specific people contributing to obtaining medals. Even if athletes strongly wish to gain medals, they control their behaviors as practical philosophers who translate the sublimely noble spirit into their performances. This means that effects of oxytocin participate in controlled activities of the amygdalae.
There are factors causing anxiety and fear; other factors amplify them; the other factors encourage people to connect them to business. These are mixed. This fact allows a complex situation to be generated. If conflict exists between cultures, the complex situation can allow the conflict to be developed. Hence, it is necessary to socially raise the potential for aiding cerebral activities that can reduce the conflict. It is necessary to socially raise effects of oxytocin working as the origin of the sublimely noble spirit.
The media have a tendency to want to broadcast information on the number of medals which allows it to seem that having beaten opponents is exaggerated. Moreover, their way of informing without accompanying the sublimely noble philosophy can have a tendency to aid in activating the amygdalae of people. Even if there are people who hope to be entertained by battles that permit opponents to be beaten aggressively with the activated amygdalae, everyone understands that the battles do not correspond to competitions of sports based on the sublimely noble spirit. Even if activities of sports allow the amygdalae to be activated, cerebral activities must be completely controlled by the sublimely noble spirit. Thus, the activities are made to proceed as sports and the cerebral activities allow the athletes to behave as practical philosophers. Sports have a particular role that encourages people to individually control the activities of their amygdalae based on the sublimely noble philosophy. Hence, sports are valuable as entertainments concerning practical philosophy.
Aims of Holding the Olympic Games
The media try to broadcast obtained medals exaggeratedly as if showing athletes to beat opponents is the principal aim rather than showing the sublimely noble spirit to athletes behave mutually fairly. Despite this, the aims of holding the Olympic Games are linked with contributions toward reducing every conflict, toward accepting differences, and toward allowing coexisting mutually fairly on the planet, no matter how strongly the media try to make efforts to transform the aims into attempts to gain medals.
An attempt to reduce unusual activations of the amygdalae based on the sublimely noble spirit and the sublimely noble philosophy is symbolized as a principal aim of holding the Olympic Games. The aim is inconsistent with attempts to beat opponents for gaining more medals. The capability of the athletes allows their cerebral activities to preserve virtue based on the sublimely noble spirit. Enjoying entertainments concerning sports must be to confirm the virtue.
When a competition of a sport is performed between different cultures, the competition permits the athletes carrying the sublimely noble spirit to be confirmed as practical philosophers representing the sublimely noble philosophy as their performances. Even if conflict between the cultures is recognized, the sublimely noble philosophy allows everyone to confirm their fair behaviors that are free from the conflict. The fair behavior represents the potential for going beyond conflicts. The potential can be confirmed by everyone through the Olympic Games that are formed by athletes carrying the sublimely noble philosophy. This generates a fine reason for participating in enjoying the Olympic Games that is suitable as entertainments for preserving the stable sustainability of the civilization.
The sublimely noble philosophy is linked with the concept of coexisting mutually fairly on the Planet. No matter which regions are the origins from which athletes left as refugees, the athletes must belong to the state of safekeeping depending on UN. They are supported financially by UNHCR as refugees. They should not be simply considered as specific people who belong to Refugee Olympic Team. They keep the right to live on the Planet. Their right is the same right as the other people. Thus, they should be able to hold the flag of UN.
If their performances accompanying the flag of UN are found, confirming the will to accept all the people to coexist mutually fairly on the Planet is allowed from the Olympic Games, which is held for reducing aggressive consciousness that everyone wishes to reject. Treating the refugees as people belonging to UN permits all the people to confirm the will to preserve the stable sustainability of the civilization which accepts everyone to live mutually fairly on the Plant. This also allows the people to indirectly confirm the will to preserve the stable sustainability of the environment of the Planet.
Unfortunately, there are situations that make people wonder what reasons allow a pattern of mosaic of economic inhomogeneity to be induced on the Planet. Performances of athletes and their behaviors can make people aware of importance of treating each other fairly on the same field, because their practical philosophy is to demonstrate the practice of the sublimely noble spirit. The sublimely noble spirit encourages people to fairly treat each other on the Planet. Thus, the behaviors of athletes and their thoughts based on the sublimely noble philosophy of the Olympic Games permits people on the Planet to confirm the will to treat each other fairly. The sublimely noble philosophy of the Olympic Games requires that fairness in the process indicated through competitions is exaggerated rather than consequences of the competitions.
[IV] For Establishing Sustainability
Preserving a stably sustainable civilization depends on whether unusual activation of the amygdalae can be reduced or not. Furthermore, it is necessary to preserve a stably sustainable environment of the Planet for preserving a stably sustainable civilization. The civilization has been linked to desires for benefit, convenience, and comfort. Nowadays, the desires must conflict with the will to try to preserve the civilization on the Planet. Then, the concept of the second law of thermodynamics should be reconsidered. The concept asks us what kind of aim is linked to the desires.
The civilization on the Planet cannot be made to become sustainable without considering the environment no matter how carefully desires for benefit, convenience, and comfort are controlled. According to the concept of the second law of thermodynamics, an attempt to induce an expected main effect always accompany the occurrence of additional effects. The use of coal, petrol, and gases for fuel results in the accumulation of CO2 in the air. Various negative effects accompanying the accumulation are examples of the additional effects. The use of plastics, various organic compounds, and various inorganic compounds induces pollution due to chemical substances distributed in the sea, rivers, and soils. Negative effects of the pollution caused by microplastics, persistent organic pollutants etc. are examples of the additional effects.
The stable sustainability of the environment of the Planet cannot be preserved unless negative influences found from at least known examples of the additional effects are considered. An influential book Silent Spring written by Rachel Carson should be recognized again to make cerebral activities become free from what the brain has. The capacity of the environment is not sufficiently large for the strength of the influences of the additional effects. If human-beings have the will to make the environment become sustainable, the will allows the establishment of ideal technology supported by ideal decisions and ideal behaviors that permit the civilization to become sustainable. The ideal decisions and the ideal behaviors allow even the tragedy of the commons to be avoided.
The author wishes to think Dr. J. L. Bernhart for reading a primitive manuscript of this article to recommend improving it.