Useful and Questionable Applications

of Several Vitamins and Anti-Vitamins


by Prof Dr Dr Randolph Riemschneider

Institute of Biochemistry, Free University (FU) Berlin, Germany

Central Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil



Editor’s Note: This retrospective explains how, in the course of his research projects, the author, LLB Fellow, had to ‘deal with’ vitamin problems more than once, for example with anti-B6 vitamins as a trigger for cannibalism (Topic 1), with the application of the vitamin C complex as stabiliser (Topic 2) and the non-existence of "vitamin B15" used for medical purposes despite the risk (Topic 3).


In two lectures on "Vitamins and Antivitamins" in Hamburg in July 1940 (1) and Jena in January 1945 (2) the author gave his definition for vitamin complexes:


Vitamins or vitamin complexes, respectively, are organic compounds which must be introduced into an organism in small quantities and cannot be synthesised by this organism. They actively contribute to the intermediary metabolism. In each case, a definition what this organism is must be made[1].


The vitamins B6 (pyridoxine, adermin) and C are complexes; B6 comprises pyridoxol, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal (3b, 9b), the vitamin C complex consists of L-ascorbic acid [IIa] plus dehydroascorbic acid [IIb] (3a).


In the above-mentioned lectures, all of the vitamins and the anti-vitamins important for research were addressed. Special attention was given to the determination of the overall vitamin C [IIa plus IIb]. The methodology is described in (3a); cf. also Plate 2 in the APPENDIX.




Topic 1 

"Cannibalism in animals triggered suddenly by the oral administration of the anti-B6 vitamin:  4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I)"


Definition of cannibalism:

A cannibal is an animal that feeds on other of its own species. This is not an unnatural characteristic: around 140 different species show cannibalistic tendencies under various conditions. It occurs among mammals and birds, especially when food is scarce (4).


Cannibalism triggered suddenly by the administration of I  [4-deoxy-pyridoxine  =         2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridine (9b)] to pregnant mice of the strain NMRI and stopped immediately as soon as the administration of I was discontinued (5a,b).


The possibility to create cannibalism and eliminate it again right away was detected by chance in 1955 when we obtained positive results in the study of "the influence of the gender ratio of new-born rodents before and during copulation" (6) and related this result to the vitamin B6 complex (B6-deficit), well aware that B6 is involved in reproduction.


Starting from the observation that more girls than boys are born during war years as a result of the restricted diet [subsequently corroborated by discussions with the Professor for Medical Statistics, Dr. Karl Freudenberg (nicknamed "Kugelkarl)] we carried out five series of experiments on mice over several years (1955 to 1962), first using 1000 ♂ to 4000♀ animals per experimental series (6). In the experimental series, we "starved" the male mice by keeping their body weight constant at 20 g over the entire period. Under these circumstances, they were still strong enough to copulate. The condition was that four female mice were available to one male mouse [a condition we had established as early as 1938 in connection with other issues (7)]. In almost all test series, a shift of the gender ratio to 70♀  to  30♂ was found when the males were "starved". Mouse strain: NMRI.


One example for the many experiments regarding cannibalism triggered by 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I) carried out in Berlin from 1955 to 1969 (5, 9e) and in Brazil at UFSM from 1975 onwards is shown in Table 1. Apart from I, a number of other B6 anti-vitamins were tested only one of which, however, produced an effect corresponding to I. A description of one of the experiments with I is found in Table 1.


All in all, another 20 basic series of experiments with I [each of which with 500 animals (400 female: 100 male)] were carried out over the years. The conditions [amount of I administered, time and duration of the I application (other rodents such  as rats, golden hamsters, dormice)] were varied (9e,d). Experimental runs followed to determine the possible simultaneous influence of arginine and other amino acids, prolactin, testosterone and other factors (9a,b) and others not mentioned.

As far as possible from a quantity point of view, other anti-B6 vitamins and related compounds were included in these experiments (9d). Unfortunately, the experiments relating to the synthesis of I analogues turned out to be time-consuming and complex. Experiments over several years on the improvement and facilitation of the synthesis of I also presented unforeseen difficulties[2] (9c,d). The report on experiments carried with other animals such as rodents and fish is included elsewhere.


Tabelle 1: Example of an experimental report about the application of 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I)  to pregnant mice  

                 (per 1 pregnant female in experiment  respectively in controle)


Data for mouse number 127:  Application of  I  in water from day 14 to 21;  delivery day :15;  normal drinking water from day 1 to 13 and from day 22


Experimental  data:

Day :   ……………………………………….13     14     15     16     17     18     19     20     21     22     23     24     25

Weight of animal :…………………………  51,5  50,1  29,6  29,6  27,2  27,8  27,9  27,6  27,3  32,7  35,5  34,8  34,8

Young number, reduced by cannibalism : …………….13     11     9       7       7        6       3       3       3        3       3


Data for corresponding controle mouse to 127:   No application of  I;  delivery on day 16;  normal drinking water all time


Experimental data:

Day………  ………….……………………….14      15     16     17     18     19      20     21      22      23      24     25

Weight of animal : …………………………..50,3   50,4  31,2  32,1  33,7  33,8    33,7  34,1   34,0   34,2  34,5   34,4

Young Number :…………………………………………….12     12       no reduction 


Prescription of oral application of  I  in drinking water to pregnat mice:

The experiment comprised 40 pregnant mice each, 30 for the main test with I, 10 for controls. From day of delivery on every mother had its own cage and drinking dish with pellet feed. The weight was checked daily.

I  was offered in an aqueous solution in a concentration between 5 and 25 g of I per 1000 ml. The animals consumed approx. 5 ml of liquid per day. The solution I was first administered to the pregnant mice one day before birth and then for another 5 or 7 days. Feed and drink ad libitum (9e,d).




The method described here, namely to create cannibalism "on command" by administration of 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I) is primarily useful for research.


The question of whether it might be used for the extermination of rodents was pursued by us in several directions, but without satisfactory result so far.  We carried out:


1          Experiments to improve the synthesis of I and to make it cheaper (9c), as mentioned above, unfortunately without success. However, this is not true for another analogue of I we synthesised; cf. 4.


2          Field experiments with bait containing I so far had a success rate of only 40%  to 50%: rodents also look for other feed.


3          Field experiments with leaving bait containing no B6 at all had a success rate of only 20% to 30% as long as the rodents were free to choose their feed.


4          Field experiments with bait containing the analogue mentioned under point 1 above showed a success rate of 70% to 80% so far. A 100% success is prevented by the rodents being able to choose their feed.


It was possible to carry out these field experiments in suitable institutions in Brazil from 1975 onwards with the aid of the industry: BRASTONE AG, HOECHST do BRASIL (results secreted).


The author woud like to thank Dipl.-Chem. H.-J.Hein, (diploma in chemistry), for his cooperation from 1955 until 1962 (5,6) in organizing and starting up the mice experiments and later watching them over carefully.


Acknowledgment of the contribution of Ms. Manjula Taneja , BSc., MSc. (India), to the project "Cannibalism and 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I)“.

Comments on the unbelievable termination of the long-term cooperation by a so-called student team3, cf. SPECIAL SECTION, Regarding: Topic 1


After Mrs.Taneja “banishment” by the mentioned student team[3] the author succeeded in continuing the work on the topic "Cannibalism" - unfortunately only in part - at the Brazilian Federal University Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS (UFSM) and with the aid of the local industry. In addition to his work in Berlin (FU), the author established a Central Chemical Institute at UFSM from 1963 to 1972 and was able to continue some of his research projects both there as "Diretor-Coordenador" and in Berlin. Each year, he spent several months in Brazil and cooperated with Brazilian industrial companies as well as with the university (UFSM).

In Berlin the author tried to find once more graduate students for the project “Cannibalism triggered by Anti-vitamins” after 1975. Two fully decided candidates declared  - shortly before beginning the work (after having already invested much time) - that they are forced to quit because of the forseable attacts by “student-collegues” (witness: Dipl.Chem.H.-J.Hein and Dr.F.Herzel).


Topic 2  

"The vitamin C complex as a stabiliser"


This was triggered by the necessity to stabilise pre-fabricated medical bulk merchandise such as SEREX[4] before shipment to Japan by removing the residue of air oxygen through the addition of calculated amounts of vitamin C.


The vitamin C complex formulated in Plate 1, ascorbic acid [IIa] / dehydroascorbic acid [IIb] is stable if one of the three factors H2O, O2 and metal ions can be excluded. In the presence of O2 the component IIb is dominant in aqueous vitamin C solutions, evident from the yellow colouring[5].

By adding vitamin C we have not only stabilised SEREX4 before shipment in 1 l glass bottles, but also kept the vitamin C content of heat-preserved potatoes stable by complete removal of O2 and adjusting a desired vitamin C content:

The publication dealing with this subject is shown as Plate 2 in the APPENDIX. However, it was not described in the paragraph "preservation of potatoes by heat" on page 172 how stabilisation of the heat-preserved potatoes was really achieved. At the express request of the manufacturer, the following sentence was left out in the published text after the passage "containing 1.5 % NaCl as the main component": "In order to remove oxygen from the filled vessels to be sealed, the amount of vitamin C calculated for oxygen (plus 10 %) was added." This was the only way to ensure that the vitamin C content of the heat-preserved potatoes remained stable over a longer period of time. (As mentioned earlier, vitamin C is degraded only if all three of the factors necessary for the degradation of vitamin O2, H2O and catalysing traces of metal  are present.) For further details on this topic, please refer to the cited publications and lectures. Quotations (10a – h, and 11).


The competitors, i.e. the manufacturers of deep-frozen potatoes became very agitated at the time and reacted negatively, as the publications (10f,g) show. There were many telephone calls from upset "customers". The reactions of the press were also very varied. A lot of fuss could have been avoided at the time if the author had been allowed to put all of his cards on the table (see above).

In closing, let me point out that, in our case, there was no "vitaminisation" of potatoes.


Plate 1

     IIa                      IIb                         IIc


The vitamin C complex consists of L-ascorbic acid [IIa] and its primary product of oxidation, dehydroascorbic acid [IIb], IIb is biologically practically equivalent to IIa, contrary to 2,3-diketo-gulonic acid [IIc] produced by hydrating IIb and opening the lactone ring.

In the formulation according to Emil Fischer, the C-atom which has the highest degree of oxidation is given the number 1. According to the definition, the L-configuration is evident from the  C-atoms 5 and 6. Additional information of monosaccharides and the terms  “D”  and  “L” in the essay “Stereochemistry of Heptites” , there in Plate 4 “Kohlenhydratstammbaum” (D-Reihe) and in Plate 5 “Explanation of terms  D and  L”, published in this Journal (20); see also the monograph of the author (8b).In Plate 3 (our APPENDIX) ,on the other hand, the formulation is simply according to generation and derivatisation.




How did we come to dealing with "heat-preserved potatoes" of the FKF company, Berlin?


Patent attorney and certified chemist Manfred Miehe who had written his Diplom thesis under the guidance of the author at the FU submitted a problem that his client, FKF Berlin, was faced with to his supervisor: How stable is the vitamin C content in potato preserves developed by FKF? How can vitamin C be stabilised in "heat-preserved food"?

Thanks to his experience with Serex4, the author saw a solution which, as the publications cited under (10a-k, 11) show, was put into practice within a few months. The above-mentioned medicament Serex4 aka Cellryl is a preparation developed by the author and registered for clinical use, namely for the treatment of ulcers, in Japan which was stabilised by the addition of an amount of L-ascorbic acid calculated for O2 before export to Japan (8a).


Topic 3

"About the non-existence of the so-called vitamin B15 and B15-risk“


This was triggered by looking for substances which, according to literature, have properties stimulating the metabolism. Over 30 years, a systematic study of defined chemical compounds as well as natural substances and preparations prepared from such substances was carried out with regard to increase or decrease of respiration[6] in the WARBURG test or with regard to increasing the growth of tadpoles of Xenopus larvis DAUDIN.


In the course of this search at the time, we came across vitamin B15, the so-called pangaminic acid, to which the Soviet authors had attributed an increase in metabolic activity. However, this result did not stand up when we repeated the test. Publication: "No cell respiration-promoting effect of vitamin B15 preparations. On the question of the non-existence of B15 aka pangaminic acid." in Kosmetik-Inter­national 1983, H.4, p. 11 - 12, based on the lab reports from (12a-c):

Both pangaminic acid preparations bought commercially and those we made ourselves did not show the slightest trace of stimulating respiration of liver homogenate. This was found both in our own WARBURG tests and in any other common lab test procedures for detecting an increase in metabolic activity during our research in the years 1977-82 (12).


Our own experiments and the subsequent in-depth study of literature about B15  according to Table 2: 271 literature passages revealed that everything connected to the discovery and development of vitamin B15 can only be classified as criminal. Neither the constitution nor the vitamin character of B15 has ever been proven; more in Plate 4 (13-15).


Table 210:  

                  Publications about "pangaminic acid", "vitamin B15" and derivatives thereof


                   Number     Topics                                                     References in literature*)

             23           Isolation, purification, synthesis, patents            38 – 60

             24           Analysis and identification                               232 – 255

           147           Tests on animals                                                      61 – 207

             18           Medical applications on humans                            208 – 225

               6           Applications in the field of cosmetics, etc.       226 – 231

             17                    Summaries                                                       256 – 271, 243

           *) The references to literature in Table 2 refer to the literature citation (13).


Unfortunately, more than 200 authors did not notice this and, in most cases, arrived at the wrong conclusions. The citations of all 271 publications we procured and translated where necessary are found in the essay: "About the undiscovered vitamin B15 (pangaminic acid)" (13), as are the formulae given by the "discoverers" in the U.S. Patent 2,710,876 dated June 14, 1955. None of the reproductions of this patent carried out in our labs by Thomas Wons, Klaus Hennig, Gerhard Quelle and Heidi Horak over five years resulted in the products described (12a,b).       


The medical application of preparations containing "vitamin B15" or pangaminic acid", respectively, as recommended in literature entails risks, as can be inferred from the excerpt of the publication "Existence of pangaminic acid - risk" aka "vitamin B15"? shown in Plate 4 (13 - 15) in  APPENDIX.


In der Literatur ist keine durch Pangaminsäure und Derivate (alias „Vitamin B15“)  zu beseitigende „B15-Avitaminose“ beschrieben, geschweige denn experimentell  bearbeitet worden, wie es für den Nachweis eines echten Vitamins notwendig gewesen wäre.

Die 1913 von FUNK als Vitamine definierten organischen Verbindungen sind durch das Auftreten von speziellen Krankheiten (später als „Avitaminosen“ bezeichnet) entdeckt worden. Deren Heilung konnte geschehen, nachdem man die fehlenden lebensnotwendigen Stoffe in mühsamen, langwierigen Versuchen isoliert und identifiziert hatte: Vitamin B1 , identifiziert als Aneurin, heilend: Beri-Beri; -  Vitamin C, identifiziert als Ascorbinsäure, heilend Skorbut ecc. Nichts dergleichen gibt es für „B15“ .

Also „Hände weg“ von angepriesenen Pangaminsäure-Vitamin-Präparaten !


In the following  SPECIAL SECTION,  additional issues connected with the topics 1 and 2 will be discussed and also the Plates 2-8 in the APPENDIX.






Regarding Topic 1:

How the application of anti-B6 vitamins ever came about, i.e. how the properties of 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I) which trigger cannibalism were discovered in 1955.


The influence on the gender ratio of new-born rodents before and during copulation was studied in five experimental series from 1955 to 1962 on 5000 mice each (♀ : ♂ = 4 : 1). In the experimental series where we "starved" the male mice, i.e. kept their body weight constant at 20 g, the gender ratio of the new-born mice was 70 : 30. These results were confirmed in further test series.

In some tests we reduced the B6 content in the diet of the mice and gave anti-B6 vitamin I (5a). In the test series with other anti-B6 vitamins synthesized in the meantime we were successful only in one case. However, this must be kept secret in the interest of an industrial enterprise (9d,e).


In order to be able to carry out such comprehensive tests which involved many people in the cellar of the Geographic Institute of the Free University where we were "uninvited guests" for a certain time, we had converted a little used bicycle cellar into a mouse lab. The room was ventilated sufficiently, and on tables we installed 1000 plastic dishes and wire covers and drinking troughs (sponsored by BASF).

The "mouse cellar" converted from a former bicycle cellar had been equipped with good ventilation. However, the construction department of the Free University had placed the outlet for waste air next to the large rhododendron shrub to the right of the main entrance of the Geographic Institute. At a departmental meeting the director of the Geographic Institute complained about the mouse odour which, depending on the wind, was noticeable more or less, but all he got as a reaction were grins, and no change was made.

For easier understanding, here are a few remarks about the "accommodation" of the biochemical department during the time before we moved into our own buildings in Lichterfelde-Süd, Ostpreussendamm, and in Lichterfelde, Limonenstrasse. The department was first a sub-tenant at the Pharmaceutical Institute in Berlin-Dahlem, was then extended to occupy (by force) a few rooms in the cellar of the Geographic Institute in Berlin Steglitz. The geographer called from Jena, Prof. Dr. D. Schultze, had to accept this, just like the fact that both the caretaker and the author jointly used the only garage of the institute - the caretaker at night, the author during the day.

Only after the renovation of the building of the Institute in Lichterfelde Süd was completed, did things become normal. In Lichterfelde-Süd, we were able to work chemically, but another solution still had to be found for purely biochemical issues, namely with the second building for the Institute at Limonenstrasse in Berlin-Lichterfelde (1950-1969).



Banishment of Mrs M.Taneja, BSc.,MSc.(India) by a so-called student team3 in the beginning of the 70ies after “FU-Democratisation” - unbelievable considering  the “Multi-Kulti-Propaganda”of the leftwing students


The author would like to point to the long-term cooperation of  Ms. Taneja on the projects "Cannibalism", "Investigations of the vitamin B6 complex and its anti-vitamins in the intermediary metabolism", and "Cannibalism and 4-deoxy-pyridoxine". These were some of the above-mentioned 20 series of trials characterised by the example of Table 1, especially experiments to characterise the interference of 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I) in greater detail and, if possible, to shed some light on it. In addition, Ms. Taneja compiled an almost complete collection of literature on the topic "Cannibalism", procured the most important original works and - where necessary - organised and financed translations.


Ms. Taneja  is a member of a high Indian caste and had substantial funds[7]. Starting in 1964, she worked as an unpaid freelancer at the Biochemical Institute of the Free University of Berlin, first out of interest in scientific issues and later - with the encouragement of the author  - with the objective of writing a thesis to be submitted later to her home university in India. After the university reform - so-called democratisation of the university - Ms. Taneja lost her room in the institute at Limonenstrasse without any discussion in the seventies, mainly at the initiative of a student team3. Since the author was no longer director of the institute after the university reform, but "comrade professor team leader", he was unable to do anything about it and had to accept termination of this particular research.


Ms. Taneja herself did not take any legal steps. She was deeply hurt and left the "University". As an Indian lady and member of a high caste she avoided any kind of dispute. Such an act would have been beneath contempt for her. This is why the scientific experiments to throw light on the effect of I could not be completed in Berlin - just as many other projects of the author and his colleagues.









Regarding Topic 2:

According to more recent investigations, the vitamins C and E are regarded as "transport vessels” for hydride ions (16): Plate 5 and 7 (23).


Worth mentioning are discussions of the author with Professors Dr. H. Remy and Dr. H.H. Schlubach, Chemical State Institute of the University of Hamburg which, according to the records from the lab diaries, took place in 1940 and 1946 on the topic "Existence, stabilisation, detection and benefit of negatively charged hydrogen ions". The questions raised both in 1940 and later were: Can hydride ions be used to intercept radicals? Where do they occur in nature? Where should they be expected? Stabilisation? Are hydride ions better radical scavengers than the vitamin C complex?


These questions were not answered until 40 to 50 years later by the works of American scientists which are described in greater detail in (16). The detection and measurements of the stability of hydride ions in solutions were carried out in the 1990s with the aid of the following three methods:


1)      Method H-NMR        = H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

2)      Method ISE               = Ion Selective Electrode Potentiometry

3)      Method XRD             = Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy


Accordingly, stable hydride ions exist in aqueous solutions which were detected qualitatively with all three methods and quantitatively with method 2: under suitable conditions, they are detectable for several weeks.


In the opinion of the author, the therapy with fruit and vegetable juices successfully used by Prof. Dr. Walker in the U.S. has now been scientifically confirmed, as shown in the essay appearing as Plate 5 in the APPENDIX (16).




In closing, reference is made to additional investigations of the author connected with vitamins:


„Anstieg des Kollagen- und des Vitamin-C-Gehaltes in Humanplazenten“ (17),

„Zur Chemie von Magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphat, C6H6O9PMg3/2“ (18), 

„Vitamin-E-Komplex und Vitamin E-Nikotinat  (d,l-α-Tocopherol-nikotinat) und deren durchblutungsfördernde Wirkung sowie deren vasodilativer Effekt auf die Haut“ (19a,b).


Haut- und Massageöl (Castanum), based on Japanese Olbas Oil, developped in cooperation with Prof. Köhnlechner (21): cf Photos there.


On the occasion of the meeting of Nobel prize winners in Lindau in the late sixties, the author had the opportunity to discuss his topic of special interest, ascorbic acid, with Prof. Dr. Lines C. Pauling (22), and to show him some Plates. For details, see quotation (23).


The reader may have noticed that different manners of writing were used for ascorbic acid in the Plates 2, 3, and 6 to 8, depending on what required special explanation. The principle of speech to use the simplest expression possible also applies to chemical formulae. These are a kind of projection of spatial models (STUART or others) on paper, i.e. the formulae often do not show the position of the atoms vis-à-vis each other correctly. This is particularly evident when comparing the O arrangement of the I formulae in said Plates. Another example: To better show the asymmetry caused by C4 and C5, the I formulae shown in Plates 6 and 7 were rotated accordingly (C4 to C6 are positioned vertically).

For reasons of originality, it may also be desirable to stick to the original manner of writing used in a publication; for example, this applies to the Plates 6 to 8 used as a kind of basis for discussion (23).


APPENDIX with Plates 2 to 8



Plate 2:

Photocopy of a publication describing the results of the application of the vitamin C complex as stabiliser including the overall vitamin C determination






Alimenta redaction board permitted further publication of this paper already 1980

Plate 3:

Connections in the form of formulae between important monosaccharides of the C6 series and derivatives formulated after their occurrence (not according to Fischer's rules, cf. also the formula scheme to IIa, IIb and IIc in Plate 1).




The structural chemical correlation between D-glucose and L-ascorbic acid [IIa] is of primary interest here. The II a pre-stage 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (Plate 1) is generated by L-sorbose oxidation (preparatively directly through catalytic oxidation with oxygen from the air at the platinum contact). See also text under Plate 1 and references (20,8b).



On the next page follows Plate 4 on the topic

"Existence of pangaminic acid alias vitamin B15?" 


A few comments in advance:


Several companies that supplied pangaminic acid or vitamin B15, respectively, at the time, were informed by the author of the negative findings on this topic, for example through published articles (15). Reaction: None. Only one company answered to the effect: "Dear Professor, you may be right with what you say, but I am sure that we will continue to sell pangaminic acid for many years" (1985).


The author had trouble to place his publications about the non-existence of vitamin B15 or pangaminic acid in German technical journals. In particular, editors of pharmaceutical publications reacted negatively [perhaps to avoid the risk of losing advertisers (?)]. The article published in the journal "Fortschritte der Medizin" was accepted only following the intervention of Nobel Prize winner Prof. Butenandt. The author failed to place an article in the Soviet publication cited under (12c) to refute the false allegation that pangaminic acid promotes cell respiration. This was then published in "Kosmetik International 1983" (14).



Plate 4:          

Excerpt from the publication "Existence of pangaminic acid aka vitamin B15 ?",

cited in (15)



Many thanks for the valuable contribution of Mr. Gerhard Quelle on the project vitamin B15 and pangaminic acid. Mr. Quelle carried out the comprehensive literature studies mentioned above.

Plate 5:

copy of publikation, citied in (16); see also Plate 7 and 6 (23)

Nutritional Supplement by Hydrid Ions acting as Antioxidants and Hydrid Ions and H Atoms as "Energy Currency" for Living Systems

by Prof. Dr. Dr. Randolph Riemschneider

We know for a long time already that we can enrich our nutrition by fresh fruit- and vegetable juices. The American nutrition specialist Dr. Norman W. Walker[8] was one the first to point out the therapeutical value of the mentioned juices. Since 1930 he applied this knowledge succesfully to his patients and himself for many years (1),  even thouth he could not give a scientifically proven explanation.  Dr. Walker reached the age of 116 in good health.

Today we know – 70 years later – that anyone consuming a certain amount of  fresh  and  raw plant or animal food of good quality will automatically obtain a significant quantity of hydrid-ions which are more stable in aqueous solutions than expected. Firstly found and analyzed in the nineties by new physical methods (2).  The content of negative hydrid-ions in nutritions is drastically reduced by heating, prolonged exposure to air or storage, by milling ecc. Negative hydrid-ions are antioxidants (=reducing agents, electron donors). They can easily neutralize radicals leaving only water as "ash": Radical scavenger effect of hydrid ions.

Early in the 20th century Professor K. Langmuir, one of the fathers of inorganic chemistry, proved the existence of negative loaded hydrogen-ions and hydrogen atoms in H2-gas at higher temperatures:  H2→ H+ + H-   and  H2 →H + H (3)       

Already in 1940, the author (4) was discussing the subject with two of his professors during his studies of chemistry in Hamburg. Especially the question of existency and proof on hydrid ions in aqueous systems;  of course not then in connection with scavenger effect of hydrid ions.

In July 62 the author (5) held a lecture with the subject "possible protection of cancer by radical scavenger" at the LIONS-Club-Berlin, by invitation of the lawyer Ludwig, Prof. Dr. Friedeboldt, General Consulate W. Böttger. The main point being the postulated hydrid ions. The behaviour of hydrid ions in aqueous solutions was subject of a lecture held in October 1962  in Wädenswil (6)

It was only many years later, namely in the 1990s, that the existence of stable hydrid ions in aqueous systems could be proven. There are three methods (2), (7):

H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  (H1-NMR),

Ion Selective Electrode Potentiometry (ISE), and

Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD).

C.J. Stephanson and co-worker (2) stated: "As significant and substancial as the XRD- and ISE-Analysis are, the NMR-analysis is without a doubt the most definitive proof that the stabile hydrid ion can exist in an aqueous environment, even over an extended time."  The ISE methode allows to determine quantitatively hydrid-ions for several weeks under suitable conditions (2).

Often the hydrid ions are so to speak "hidden", loosely bound in structure hydrides or organic compounds like NADH, flavonoides, vitamin C-  and vitamine E-complexes. Vitamine E for instance acts as "transport vessel" for hydrid- ions. Hydrid-ions [ H-] respectively H-atoms [H = H+ + ө ] can be seen as "energy currency" of living systems.





  For better understanding the author found the following text very interesting

"The negative hydrogen ion (H--ion) is a powerful, primitive primary antioxydant found in all raw, unprocessed, untreated foods (plant and animal) and in many "wild" unprocessed water supplies (glacial runoff water, high altitude wells and springs, some deep wells, etc). It was the original antioxydant for life forms on earth, and is likely the single most optimal antioxydant for life form.

By the 1990's it became apparent the H-ion is ubiquitous even in life forms on earth, and essential to certain key biochemical reactins related to the citric acid cycle (KREBS-cycle) in living organisms. By the late 1990's, it became obvious that several common antioxydants found in plants and animals (Vit.-E-complex among them) function as an antioxydant by acting as a transport vessel for the Hion, donating it at the right time within living systems to neutralize any of several species of hydrogen free radicals (oxydizing radicals), also known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurring in tissues or fluids in or around the cells. The binary pair, NAD, NADH, is an excellent example of these facts. NADH is well known as a potential energy carrier in living  systems, and to play a key part in the energy currency of most cells of many life forms, including those of humans, while NAD is the low energy combustion product." (October 2001):

The above mentioned authors C.J. Stephanson, C.F. Duffy, A.M. Stephanson, and G.P. Flanagan (2) explained: "Since the human body is majority water, the ability to know definitively that a hydrid ion exists and is stable has significant importance to understanding biochemical mechanisms of reactions in the body . Up until recently, the NAD+ to NADH conversion was thought to mechanistically be carried out through the transfer of a hydrogen proton and two separate electrons. The present theories understand the mechanism to be related to a hydride transfer rather than a hydrogen atom(8). Knowing that the hydride ion does exist in the aqueous environment could allow further investigation into the biochemical reaction mechanisms"

Below, some details about the two researchers and theresults of their research that have decisively influenced the areas under discussion: 1) Prof Dr Patrick Flanagan, USA, nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1964 and 2) Prof Dr Norman W Walker, also USA.

To 1): "Research on water and longevity" was an important field of work for Flanagan, especially "Studying the Hunza water and other therapeutic waters". The waters of the Hunza have blessed the inhabitants of the Hunza mountain valley in Pakistan with a long life, up to 120 years in the best of health.

The water of the Hunza contain no dissolved minerals in ionic form, but rather it is rich in extremely small mineral particles (colloids) and rich in hydride ions, only rarely found in most water. Flanagan describes Hunza water as "structured" (a sort of "liquid crystal"). The surface tension of Hunza water roughly equals that of our body fluids. Flanagan attempted to produce a "copy" of Hunza water, eg by adding appropriate colloids and seperately produced hydride ions (so-called microcluster colloids as Crystal Energy).

Flanagan also discovered hydride ions in some other therapeutic waters, for example in the water at Lourdes. Negative hydride ions are, as noted above, natural antioxidants that can neutralize free radicals in the body. Today we can speak of a direct link between "ageing processes and damaging influence of free radicals". Too little attention has been paid to the antioxidant "hydride ion" to date: Donating an electron in order to neutralize a free radical. Negative hydride ions are the only oxidizing agents that cannot themself become free radicals. After donating the electron, they abreact to water and in so doing attract oxygen that can more effectively get into the cells.

To 2): Prof Walker (1) reported in great detail on his long years of experience in the works cited. Part of his exposition - above all about the state of knowledge on the subject of "intermediary metabolism" - must, however, be considered outdated. But his basic idea on the therapeutic value of fruit and vegetable juices remains unaffected by this. The important thing is that the more recent research noted above (2) has provided experimental proof. In his papers, Walker published numerous recipes that he tried out on his patients over many years (1).

During his 60 years of work in the fields of nutrition and health he proved that a long life and good health can go hand in hand: Good health is independent of age. Dr Walker's interest in how to lead a healthy life began in London at the turn of the last century. His greatest contribution to dietetics was the discovery in 1930, noted above, of the therapeutic value of fruit and vegetable juices [unfortunately most people today drink canned juices from the factory, that possibly do more harm than good]. Even in old age, Dr Walker said: "I can truthfully say that I am never conscious of my body. Since I grew up, I have never had the feeling of being older, and I can say without reservation that I feel more alive than at the age of 30. I don't think about birthdays, don't celebrate them either. I feel ageless."

References to (16):

(1)             Norman W. Walker, "Frische Frucht- und Gemüsesäfte", Goldmann-Verlag, München, 1995; title of the original: "Fresh Vegetable and Fruit Juices", Norwalk Press, Pressot, USA; "Become Younger", USA, German translation: "Auch Sie können jünger werden", Mosaik bei W. Goldmann-Verlag, München, 1993; "Strahlende Gesundheit", ibid

(2)             C.J. Stephanson, G.P. Flanagan, C.Duffy: "Evidence of Stable Hydrides in an Aqueous Environment, using modern Analytical Techniques" J. Amer.Chem.Soc.2001, cited by C.J. Stephanson, A.M. Stephanson und G.P. Flanagan: "An in vitro Cellular Analysis of Radical Scavengings Efficacy of Silica Hydride on Hydroxyl, Superoxyde and Singlet Oxygene,  Reactive Oxygen Species., by Photosensitisation", University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; ibid(em) further literature

(3)             J.Langmuir, "Flames of Atomic Hydrogen", Ind. Engng Chemistry 19 (6), 667-674, (1927)

(4)             R.Riemschneider, H.Remy, H.H. Schlubach

Discussions in 1940 about the "Existence, stabilization, proof and use of negatively charged hydrogen ions"("Existenz, Stabilisierung, Nachweis und Nutzen von negativ geladenen Wasserstoff-Ionen.")         

Author’s laboratory manual: Notes of talks on 15 Mar 40 and in May 40 with profs H Remy (Anorganic Chemistry, University of Hamburg) and H H Schlubach (Organic Chemistry, University of Hamburg).

Raised by the author after a lecture by Prof Remy in Mar 40, the subject of "hydride ions" was – at Prof Remy’s initiative – pursued under Prof Schlubach, the Head of Organic Chemistry, State Institute of Chemistry, University of Hamburg: It was above all the possible use of hydride ions as scavengers of free radicals that made the stabilization and production of hydride ions interesting. Further questions raised in this connection were: 1) can hydride ions actually scavenge free radicals 2) where hydride ions occur naturally 3) where are they to be expected?


 (5)            R.Riemschneider

"Possible protection against cancer through free-radical scavengers" ("Möglicher Schutz vor Krebs durch Radikalfänger"). Lecture given in LIONS Club, Berlin, in July 1962 at the invitation of attorney Dr Ludwig (owner of the Sportpalast), Prof Dr F Friedebold (director of the Oskar Helene Heim), Wolfgang Böttger (Consul General of Haiti) all of Berlin.


(6)             Riemschneider (Lecturer), E.B. Grabitz

„Theorethical considerations on the behaviour of hydride ions in aqueous solutions: two theories including mechanism and kinetics"("Theoretische Betrachtungen über das Verhalten von negativen H-Ionen in wässrigen Lösungen: 2 Theorien incl Mechanismus und Kinetik") Lecture, held in October 1962, at WIDMER AG; Wädenswil, Switzerland


(7)            NMR:  R.K. Harris, Hydrides in NMR. View, New York, NY, Longman Scientific and Technical 198-203 (1994) ISE:     Omega Inc. ISE Technical Reference

            XRD:    Siemens D 500 Diffractometer, 2,2kW, Flanagan Technologies, Inc.,  Cottonwood, AZ, USA


(8)             R.W. Nagorski, J.P. Richard

Mechanistic Imperatives for Enzymatic Catalysis of Intramol. Transfer of a Hydrid Ion, J. Amer. Chem.Soc. 118 (31), 7432 bis 7433 (1996).


Plate 5 end.






            Plate 7:

            „Freisetzung eines Hydrid-Ions“ durch Reaktion von I zu II (formal)






Plate 8:

Stereoisomeric forms of ascorbic acid (I); see ref. (23)





            L-I                                                        D-I





            L-iso-I                                                 D-iso-I




All of the I-stereoisomers shown are optically active: C4 and C5 are centres of asymmetry.

Because of the enzyme specificity, only the L-I has vitamin character among the  I-isomers listed; D-I, L-iso-I and Di-iso-I are inactive. The low activity attributed to the isomer last mentioned could not be confirmed when working with the purest D-iso-I (free of L-I).

Regarding the definition of D and L, see ref. (20).






(1)        R. Riemschneider

„Vitamines and Antivitamines“ (Vitamine und Antivitamine)

Lecture, given in July 1940 at Chemical Kolloquium of the Chemische Staatsinstitut,  University Hamburg, in the course of the authors study of chemistry: Duration 40 minutes, chair: Prof. Dr.H.H. Schlubach.


(2)        R. Riemschneider

„Vitamine und Antivitamine“

Vortrag, gehalten in einem Kolloquium des Hygienischen Institutes der Universität Jena im Januar 1945, im Zusammenhang mit dem in Kürze stattfindenden Rigorosum; Vortragsdauer 70 Minuten. Vorsitz: Prof. Dr. H. Schloßberger, Institutsdirektor. Anwesende: Prof. Dr. Bredereck, Prof. Dr. Brintzinger, Dr. Siebenmarck (Leipzig), 


Zum Inhalt der Vorträge

1.      Gegebene eigene Definition des Vitamin-Begriffes: Bei Vitaminen bzw. bei den Vitamin-Komplexen handelt es sich um organische Verbindungen, die 1) in kleinen Mengen mit der Nahrung aufgenommen werden müssen, die 2) der betreffende Organismus nicht selbst herstellen kann und die 3) aktiv in den Stoffwechsel eingreifen.


2.      Man sollte von einem Vitamin-Komplex sprechen, wenn es sich um mehrere, in Wechselwirkung zueinander stehende Verbindungen handelt; zum Beispiel besteht der Vitamin C-Komplex aus L-Ascorbinsäure und Dehydroascorbinsäure [IIa/IIb]. Diese Betrachtungsweise spielt bei der Bestimmung des Vitamingehaltes in Naturstoffen eine entscheidende Rolle, z.B. (3a).


3.      Wenn man von einem Vitamin-Komplex spricht, muß immer der zugehörige Organismus genannt werden: Der Vitamin C-Komplex  IIa/IIb ist z.B. nur für den Menschen, einige Menschenaffen, Meerschweinchen und einige Vögel Vitamin. Die meisten Organismen können Vitamin C selbst synthetisieren.


4.      Liste der bekannten Vitamin-Komplexe mit Formeln, eingeteilt in Wasser- und fettlösl. Vitamine gemäß Literatur.


5.      Die wichtigsten Antivitamine sind diskutiert worden.



(3a)      R. Riemschneider, E. Hausmann

            Bestimmung von L-Ascorbinsäure und Dehydroascorbinsäure [IIa/IIb] nebeneinander (Gesamtvitamin-C-Bestimmung),

            Laborberichte Januar 1945, 14 Seiten; vgl. auch spätere Veröffentlichungen und Anwendungen (10a-c, 10h), hier im Aufsatz besonders Tafel 2 (ANHANG).


(3b)      R. Riemschneider

„Der Vitamin-B6-Komplex [Pyridoxol, Pyridoxamin, Pyridoxal ] im Intermediären Stoffwechsel“,

Vortrag, gehalten im Dezember 1949 im internen Kolloquium des Physiolog.-chem. Instituts der Humboldt-Universität Berlin. Manuskript November 1949, 11 Seiten mit 5 Tafeln und 4 Tabellen; später Teil der Vorlesung „Intermediärer Stoffwechsel“: PROJEKT XXVI (8a); B6-Formeln in refs (9b)


(3c)      R. Riemschneider

              „4-Desoxy-pyridoxin (I)“

Vortrag gehalten wie vorstehend im Dezember 1949 – nach Arbeiten von W.M. OTT, Proc.Soc.Exptl.Biol.Med. 61, 125 (1946), 66, 215 (1947).


(4)       , 2003



(5a)      R. Riemschneider, H.-J. Hein

4-Desoxy-pyridoxin (I) als Kannibalismus-Auslöser bei trächtigen Nagern,

Laborbericht, 1957, 34 Seiten aus der Abteilung Biochemie der Freien Universität Berlin


(5b)     R. Riemschneider

Cannibalism by administration of anti-B6 vitamins such as 4-deoxy-pyridoxin. Methods for rodent control (Kannibalimus durch Gabe von Anti-B6-Vitaminen wie z.B. 4-Desoxy-pyridoxin. Verfahren zur Nagerbekämpfung).

Patent application in Brazil on December 30, 1961, by Dr. F.R. Pesserl, Curitiba, and M.M. Faria, S.Paulo, naming R. Riemschneider as inventor.


(6)       R. Riemschneider, H.-J. Hein, H. Bode

Experiments on influencing the gender ratio of newborn mammals before and during copulation in 5 series of experiments with 5000 mice each (1000 ♂ : 4000 ♀) in  plasticcages by keeping the male mice at a weight of approx. 20 g.

6 lab reports, 1955 - 62, 310 pages in total, prepared by H.-J. Hein (diploma in chemistry) on microfilm.

The experiments were carried out in the years 1955 to 1962 in the Department of Biochemistry of The Free University of Berlin in a few rooms of the Geographic Institute in Berlin-Steglitz, Grunewaldstrasse, after an out-of-use bicycle cellar had been converted into a mouse lab.

At the time, the large numbers of newborn mice were donated to the aquarium of the Zoological Garden (director Dr. Schröder) to feed the reptiles.


(7)       R. Riemschneider, A. Suhr, H. Kahl

On the negative influence of regular intact yeast (baker's yeast) given with the drinking water on the potency of male mice (Über den negativen Einfluß normaler intakter Hefe (Bäckerhefe) auf die Potenz von Mäuseböcken, verabreicht im Trinkwasser).

Lab report June 1938, 15 pages. Abbreviated version published in 1938 in the students' magazine of Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Hamburg-Dammtor.

These orientation experiments were carried out during the time from May 1937 to June 1938 with the approval of the administration of the Matthias-Claudius-Gymnasium, financed by the family of my school friend A. Suhr from the Wilhelm-Gymnasium. (Suhr studied medicine and obtained his M.D. after the war). These orientation experiments (which were not confirmed sufficiently for statistical purposes) were four series of experiments with a total of 960 mice of which 140 were controls. The ratio in the test series I and II was ♂  :     = 1 : 3, and in the test series III and IV 1 : 4. Evaluation by the number of newborn mice. Result: Potency inhibition approx. 20 %.

This report was continued in Bulletins II to XII (1946-84), entitled "Aphrodisiaka": PROJ XXII in (8a); cf. also (6).


(8a)      R.Riemschneider

Re-reading  -  66 years chemistry,

26 PROJECTS, over 1400 references (in preparation),  here concerning: PROJ. XXIII, bzw. XXVI.


(8b)     R.Riemschneider,

Material für biochemische Einführungsvorlesungen 1969 (1.Auflage), 74 Seiten;

Druck: W.Hilke KG, Berlin 30


(9a)      R. Riemschneider

Forschungsvorhaben: Markierte B6- und Anti-B6-Vitamine und ihre Anwendung auf Untersuchungen des intermediären Stoffwechsels und der Reproduktion

Antrag vom 30.6.1960, gerichtet an die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn-Bad Godesberg.




(9b)     R. Riemschneider

Position of the vitamin B6 complex (pyridoxol, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal) in intermediary metabolism - B6 deficiency and tryptophan degradation (Stellung des Vitamin B6-Komplexes (Pyridoxol, Pyridoxamin, Pyridoxal) im intermediären Stoffwechsel – B6-Mangel and Tryptophan-Abbau)

Lecture held in June 1960 at the Colloquium of RIEDEL de HAEN. ms 10 p (unpublished); also cf. (3b)


Vitamin B6  (pyridoxine, adermin)



The term B6 comprises the three substances pyridoxol, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal which may be exploited by the organism in the same way. Pyridoxol is generally used for therapeutic purposes, because it is stable against heat, alkaline and acidic compounds. The really effective compound is pyridoxal-5-phosphate which is an essential co-enzyme of transaminases and amino acid decarboxylases for the amino acid metabolism.

pyridoxol:                          2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis-(hydroxymethyl)-pyridine;


actually: 4-deoxy-pyridoxol      2-Methyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridine.


(9c)      R. Riemschneider and co-workers

            Experiments about the improvement of the 4-deoxy-pyridoxine (I) synthesis

              Lab reports 1962/90 (excerpts).

Experiments carried out at the Institute for Biochemistry of the Free University of Berlin and at the Chemical Institute of the Federal University of Brazil S. Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil


(9d)     R. Riemschneider and co-workers

              Synthese weiterer B6-Antivitamine (I-Analoge) und Prüfung auf Kannibalismus-erzeugende Wirkung bei trächtigen Mäusen, Ratten, Fischen

            Laborberichte 1964/90 (sekretiert)


(9e)      R. Riemschneider, M. Taneja and other co-workers

            Versuchsprotokolle der „Kannibalismus-Versuche“ mit Anti-B6-Vitaminen (from 1964)

            (sektretiert); cf. Table 1.  There are protocols to each single animal of experimental series containing 500 mice each.


(10a)    R. Riemschneider

Untersuchungen über den Vitamin C-Gehalt von hitzesterilisierten und tiefgekühlten Kartoffeln,

              Gutachten vom 1.10.1975 für die Firma FKF, Berlin 48, 50 Seiten (vermittelt durch einen ehemaligen Miarbeiter Dipl.Chem. Manfred Miehe, später Patent-Anwalt)


(10b)   R. Riemschneider, R. Pereyron-Mocellin

              Determinação de Vitamina C como critério de Caracterização de Alimentos Esterilizados através de Aquecimento,

Manuskript von August 1975, 21 Seiten (in portugiesischer Sprache); veröffentlicht in Revista Centro Ciencias Rurais, S.Maria 6 (2), 1976.


(10c)    R. Riemschneider, M.Z. Abedin, R. Pereyron-Mocellin

              Mitt. I: Qualitäts- und Stabilitätsprüfung hitzekonservierter Nahrungsmittel unter Verwendung von Vitamin C als Kriterium,

alimenta 15, 171 – 174 (1976)


(10d)   R. Riemschneider

Mitt. II: Kartoffeln auf dem Prüfstand – Mehr Vitamin C in hitzekonservierten oder in tiefgefrorenen Kartoffeln?

Betriebsverpflegung Heft 5, Seite 13 – 14 (1976)


(10e)    R. Riemschneider

Mitt. III: „L-Ascorbinsäure als «Sauerstoff-Entferner» mit dem Ziel der Stabilisierung von Konserven und pharmazeutischen Lösungen (Bulkware)“,

Vortrag vom 15.6.1976 vor einem Gremium und Gästen der Firma FKF, Berlin 48; (nicht zur Veröffentlichung bestimmt); vgl. auch (11).


(10f)    R. Riemschneider, M.Z. Abedin

Mitt. IV a: Antwort auf die Lesebriefe der Hansa Fertigprodukte GmbH und des Deutschen Tiefkühlinstituts e.V. in Betriebsverpflegung vom August 1976, Betriebsverpflegung 1976, Heft 7, Seite 22 – 23


(10g)   R. Riemschneider

Mitt. IV b: Antworten auf die Leserbriefe der Hansa Fertigmenue GmbH und des Deutschen Tiefkühlinstituts e.V. in Betriebsverpflegung vom August und September 1976:

Manuskript 6 Seiten, veröffentlicht in Betriebsverpflegung 1976, Heft 11


(10h)   R. Riemschneider*), R. Pereyron Mocellin**), M.Z. Abedin***)

Mitt. IV c: Determinação de Vitamina C em batatas (Solanum tuberosum L.) submetidas a dois processos de Industrialização, Rev. Centro Ciencias Rurais, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien, 7(3), 191 – 198 (1977)


*)      Trabalho realizado no Instituto de Biochímica da Universidade Livre de Berlím, Alemanha Ocidental.

Executor e Coordenador do Convênio entre o Departamento de Química da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e o Instituto de Bioquímica da Universidade Livre de Berlím: Professor de Bioquímica, Dr.rer.nat. (Doctor of natural, Science) ; Dr.h.c. (Diretor do Instituto de Bioquímica da Universidade Livre de Berlím (West).

**)    Auxiliar de Ensino do Departamento de Química-UFSM.

***)  Químico Diplomado na Universidade Livre de Berlím (West)



(10i)    R. Riemschneider, M.Z. Abedin, I.K. Khan Ghouri

Mitt. V: Auf dem Prüfstand: Rindfleisch-Fertigprodukte, sinkender Vitamin B1-Gehalt bei kurzzeiterhitzten Rindfleisch-Fertiggerichten,

              Betriebsverpflegung 1979, Heft 4, Seite 22


(10k)   R. Riemschneider, I.K. Khan Ghouri, M.Z. Abedin

Hitzekonservierte Nahrungsmittel

Mitt. VI: Bestimmung und Stabilisierung von Thiamin in hitzekonserviertem Rindfleisch,

alimenta 18, 147 – 150 (1979)


(11)     R. Riemschneider

Bull VII: "Practical experience with and applications of L-ascorbic acid as an oxygen scavenger according to Comm. Mitt. I - II" (Mitt. VII: „Praktische Erfahrungen and Anwendungen von L-Ascorbinsäure als «Sauerstoff-Entferner» gemäß Mitt. I – III)

Lecture held on August 15, 1975 at the Central Chemical Institute of the Federal University Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the basis of experience collected in Germany, Japan and Brazil.

Manuscript December 1980, 14 pages (unpublished); Manuscript in the Portuguese language published in: Rev. Centro Ciencras Rurais, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 9 (10), 120 – 125 (1979); also cf. (10a-e).


Annotation: The time-honoured method of preserving vegetables or fruit practised by our grandparents (before 1930) is also based on the principle of oxygen removal and a vitamin C reaction: The air is largely removed by heating, and the bottles are sealed hermetically upon cooling. The remaining oxygen is eliminated by the reaction with vitamin C. Any micro-organisms present have been exterminated by heating.


(12a)    R. Riemschneider, K. Hennig, Th. Wons

Keine zellatmungsfördernde Wirkung aller nach der WARBURG-Methode geprüften „Pangaminsäure“ – und „Pangaminsäure-Salze“  des Handels sowie auch der eigenen Syntheseprodukte [(1496a) in (8a)]

Laborberichte 1977 – 1982, 17 Seiten (unveröffentlicht); see (14)


(12b)   R. Riemschneider, Th. Wons

Negative Versuche zur Herstellung von „Pangaminsäure (sog. Vit. B15)“ nach Angaben der Literatur,

Laborberichte 1977 – 1982, 20 Seiten (unveröffentlicht); see (14)


(12c)    R. Riemschneider, Th. Wons, K. Hennig, G. Quelle

Comment on the publication of A.K. Selezneva: Kletochnoe Dykhanie Norme Usloviyakh Gipoksii 1979, 108 – 109; Ed.. Khvatova, E.M. Gor’k.Med.Inst. Gorky, USSR, with the title: "No cell respiration-promoting effect of 'pangaminic acid'", manuscript 1982, sent by registered letter to this magazine and institution in the USSR without ever receiving an answer. - Perhaps our manuscript never reached the recipient(s). Reminders had no success.


(13)      R. Riemschneider, G. Quelle

Über das unentdeckte „Vitamin B-15“, die sog. „Pangaminsäure“,

Seifen, Öle, Fette, Wachse 109, 397 – 399, 440 – 444 (1983): 271 Zitate; vgl Tab. 2[9]


(14)     R. Riemschneider, G. Quelle, Th. Wons, K. Hennig

Vitamin B15 – ein Wirkstoff, den es nicht gibt ?   Keine zellatmungsfördernde Wirkung von „Pangaminsäure“  Zur Frage der Existenz der „Pangaminsäure“ alias „Vitamin B15“,

Kosmetik International 1983, Heft 4, Seite 11 – 12


(15)     R. Riemschneider, G. Quelle

Existenz der „Pangaminsäure“ alias „Vitamin B15?,

Fortschr. Med. 102, 339 – 341 (1984)

In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, einschließlich Berlin (West), und anderen europäischen Ländern werden mindestens zehn pharmazeutische und drei homöopatische Präparate vertrieben, die „Pangaminsäure“ oder „Vitamin B15“ enthalten sollen. Gesichert sind jedoch  weder die Konstitution der „Pangaminsäure“ oder ihrer  Analoga noch ihre Existenz in der Natur oder in synthetischen Präparaten. Die Interpretationen der meisten tierexperimentellen Untersuchungen und medizinischen Anwendungen sind in Frage zu stellen. „Pangaminsäure“- Verbindungen als „Vitamin B15“ zu bezeichnen ist wissenschaftlich unhaltbar.; cf also Plate 4.


(16)     R. Riemschneider

Nutritional Supplement by Hydrid Ions acting as Antioxidants – Hydrid Ions and H.Atoms as “energy currency” for Living Systems,

Bi-Mouthly Journal of BWW’s WHO’S WHO Society, Jan 2004, Irvine, Cal., USA Internet:;  Jan. 2004; copy in APPENDIX  as Plate 5.



(17a)    R. Riemschneider, M.Z. Abedin

Kollagen und Vitamin C-Gehalt von Humanplazenten.

Geburtsh. u. Frauenheilk. 38, 1066 – 1069 (1978)

Aus dem Institut für Biochemie der FU Berlin (Geschäftsf. Direktor: Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. R. Riemschneider). Please note: The function of a "managing director" of a scientific board at FU is not comparable with an "institute director" before 1969 (before introduction of the new University Act), i.e. there is no contradiction to the above comments: As a "comrade professor" one remains the team leader of a "tiny" team of a scientific institution. Translation in footnote 9. [10]


(17b)   R. Riemschneider (Vortragender)

„Linearer Anstieg des Kollagen- und Gesamtvitamin C-Gehaltes in Humanplazenten“

Vortrag, gehalten im Dez 1976 im Kolloquium des Instituts für Biochemie der FU Berlin


(18)     R. Riemschneider

              “Magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphat C6H6O9PMg3/2 (IV)”

Vortrag, gehalten im Chemischen Kolloquium des Instituts für Technische Chemie der Universität Jena im Januar 1945. Diskussionsleitung: Prof. Dr. H. Brintzinger, Laborberichte vom Januar 1945, 6 Seiten.  Auszug aus dem Inhalt: Beschreibung der Herstellung von IV und Analytik: UV von IV in 0,1 n HCl (1 : 50 000):  237 nm; 3 ml 0,3 %iger IV-Lösung     + 3 Tropfen Ammonmolybdat in der Hitze: Gelbfärbung nach 5 Minuten blau. IV-Lösung mit Eisensulfat: Braunfärbung


(19a)    R. Riemschneider

“Der Vitamin E-Komplex und das Vitamin-E-Nikotinat“

Vortrag, gehalten im Mai 1946 im Kolloquium des Pharmazeut. Instituts der Univ Jena,

Manuskript 17 Seiten (unveröffentlicht)

              Die Texte der Vorträge vom Jan. 1945 und Mai 1946 sind hektographiert und nach den Vorträgen an die Anwesenden verteilt worden.


(19b)   R. Riemschneider, H. Vogt

Durchblutungsfördernde Wirkung und vasodilativer Effekt von Vitamin-E-nikotinat (V) auf die Haut,

Manuskript Dez 1947, 10 Seiten.

In Zusammenarbeit mit Dr. med. H. Vogt in Berlin konnten vasodilative Effekte von V auf der Oberfläche menschlicher Haut (ohne gleichzeitige Rötung wie bei Benzyl-nikotinat) beobachtet werden. Exakte Beweise stehen noch aus. Es fehlte uns eine gute Messmethode zur Registrierung von winzigen Temperaturdifferenzen und/oder zur Registrierung von Veränderungen der Wärmeleitung.


(20)     R. Riemschneider

            Stereochemistry of Heptites

    2007; there plate 4 and 5 with  explanation of term “D” and “L”.


(21)     M. Köhnlechner, R. Riemschneider, W. Böttger

            Präparat auf Basis von japanischem Heilpflanzenöl (photo) – Vitamingehalt

            Protokolle der Entwicklung 1983; cf. SPECIAL PART, Re.: Topic 2.










 R. Riemschneider, (left)

 Prof. M. Köhnlechner (right)


As mentioned above, the author attended the Nobel Prize winner meeting in Lindau described below and had occasion to speak with some of the lecturers, Prof. Dr. Linus C. Pauling among them.


(22)     Linus C. Pauling

            Lecture on "L-ascorbic acid" on the occasion of the meeting of Nobel Prize winners in Lindau in 1969.


            Prof. Pauling reported experiments where L ascorbic acid (I) was administered in comparatively high daily dosages to persons for cancer prevention; at the time, he was instantly criticised from a physiological point of view. However, the significance of the hydride ions as radical scavengers and the function of ascorbic acid (I) and dehydroascorbic acid (II) as a "transport vessel" for the hydride ions had not fully been recognised over 35 years ago.


(23)     R. Riemschneider

            Diary records of discussions of the author with the lecturer, Prof. Pauling on the topics:

            a)         Controversial cancer prevention by I          II ;  toxicological data

            b)         I         II as “transport vessels”, hydride ions ; (here Plates 6 and 7, formulated in            1966)

            c)         Stereochemistry of I (here Plate 8, formulated in 1960)


            re a)     In  connection with the use of ascorbic acid in amounts which are considerably above the necessary daily dosage, the author reported his own toxicological experiments with rats. For I, the DL50 was determined to be about 12 g per kg of rat, i.e. for a humans of 60 kg, the DL50 would be approx 0.72 kg, which is outside any discussion. -  In case of oral application of I to rats, our own experiments showed that the concentrations of oxalate and therefore urea in the blood plasma increased only after application of 20 mg I per kg. The author had carried out these experiments in connection with gerontological experiments also including I (24a-c).

This discussion was not held in public, i.e. not after the lecture of Pauling, so as not to encourage criticism of Pauling's experiments.

In the opinion of the author, it is still justified on the basis of today's knowledge to take an additional 100 mg of I per day if it is intended to exploit the radical scavenger effect of I for some time.


            re b)    Because of his long involvement with stability, function and detection of hydride ions, the author used Plates 6 and 7 to discuss the contexts formulated there and met with Pauling's approval, just as for Plate 8 dealt with under c) below regarding theoretically possible I isomers.
Regarding the significance of hydride ions as radical scavengers, cf  Plate 5 (16).


            re c)     I-isomers and their "vitamin C character"


                        At the time, the author intended to include the theoretically possible stereoisomers of ascorbic acid formulated in Plate 8 in his work on cis-trans-asymmetry (25). The author asked Pauling whether the latter had looked into the synthesis of the iso-isomers.

                        Both scientists agreed that, owing to the specificity of the enzymes involved, only L-ascorbic acid (in combination with the L-dehydroascorbic acid) will show vitamin characteristics.




(24a)    R. Riemschneider (Vortragender), O. Göhring, E. Frömming

              Intermediärer Stoffwechsel und Alter

              Mitt. II: Übersichtsreferat Fortsetzung, Vortrag vom 5.5.1956, gehalten im Kolloquium           der Abteilung Biochemie der Freien Universität Berlin,  Vortragsdauer: 120 Minuten


(24b)   R. Riemschneider

              Intermediärer Stoffwechsel und Alter

Mitt. III: Altersabhängigkeit einiger Aminosäuren im Blut und  „Normalisierung‘“ durch Cysteinzufuhr,

               Z.Naturforschg. 16 b, 142 – 143 (1961)


(24c)    R. Riemschneider, O. Göhring, E. Frömming

            Intermediärer Stoffwechsel und Alter

              Mitt. IV: Altersabhängigkeit des Gehaltes von Aminosäuren im Blut,

               Z.Naturforschg. 16 b, 704 (1961)


(25)     R.Riemschneider

STEREOCHEMISTRY: cis-trans asymmetrical compounds   -   axis-ring molecular aggregates

© 2006 The BWW Society/The Institute for the Advancement of Positive Global Solutions

Vol. VI NO.4  ISSN # 1544-5399    JULY/AUGUST 2006










[1]      For instance: Vitamin C is only a vitamin for humans, some anthropoide apes, guinea-pigs and some birds, because of  lacking a certain enzyme; all other living creatures can synthesize ascorbic acid by themselves – as far as have been studied.

[2]    The synthesis of  I and I-analogues has to undergo several steps and is therefore rather complicated.       

       In this respect, the author owes special thanks to Prof. Dr. Kinawi and Dr. R. Martin who worked on the imrovement of the I -synthesis  and  also I-analogues thereof in Berlin and Brazil over several years (9c,d).

[3]    Due to the university reform at the FU in Berlin in 1969, the institutes were replaced by scientific boards or central institutes headed by boards of “directors”. The scientific boards were then cleaved into several work groups each of which was managed by one or more university lecturers. Later, there were even work groups without university lecturers, so-called student teams which, as the above example shows, even had the power to destroy genuine research. Original German text: Durch die 1969 stattgefundene Universitätsreform der FU Berlin sind die Institute durch wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen, bzw. Zentralinstitute ersetzt worden, geleitet von Direktorien. Die genannten Einrichtungen “zerhackte” man dann in Arbeitsgruppen, geleitet jeweils von einem oder mehreren Hochschullehrern. Dann gab es sogar Arbeitsgruppen  ohne  Hochschullehrer, sogenannte studentische Arbeitsgruppen, die, wie obiges Beispiel zeigt,  sogar die Macht hatten, echte Forschungen zu zerstören.

[4]      SEREX alias CELLRYL is a drug developed by the author which was used in Japan for approx 20 years. It was made of calf blood in Germany and exported to Japan to be filled in ampoules in quantities of up to 30,000 l per year until the BSE crisis broke out: Project XXIII, described in (8a).

[5]     Limits of yellow colouring in case of SEREX taken into account in the quality standards of the product and agreed with the Japanese customer.

[6]       …decreased  -  with regard to the prolongation of live (when the number of cell division is regarded as defined)

[7]      For example, more than 5000 guests were invited to Ms. Taneja's wedding in India.

[8]      He founded the "Norwalk Laboratory for Nutrition and Research" in New York in 1910.

[9]      All cited papers had been studied in the original first and most of them had been translated for further research.

[10]     Die Funktion eines auf Zeit gewählten „Geschäftsführenden Direktors“ einer wissenschaftlichen Einrichtung an der FU ist nicht vergleichbar mit einem „Institutsdirektor“  - ernannt vom Wissenschaftssenator  mit Urkunde  -  ist kein Widerspruch zu oben gemachten Ausführungen3. Man ist und bleibt als solcher „Genosse-Professor-Arbeitsgruppen-eiter“ einer „winzigen“ Arbeitsgruppe, gehörend zu einer wissenschaftlichen Einrichtung, vgl. auch note 3.





For correspondence: Prof. Dr. Dr. R. Riemschneider, D-14001 Berlin, Fach 1164, Germany,



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