Philosophy: Neurology: Astronomy:
An Essay on Continuity and an Awareness of Realities:
Responsibilities of Science
PART IV of IV
by Tetsuo Kaneko
Editor’s Note: The paper featured here is Part IV of a four-part paper.
Parts I, II & III were featured in the three previous issues of this Journal. - JP
While overcoming no awareness about nonlinear responses
In the case of analyzing nonlinear responses exemplified by the behavior of weather, consequences that are obtained on a basis of methods involving scientific assumptions and mathematical modeling can include uncertainty making everyone wonder whether the realities of objects are understood with sufficient accuracy or not. Comparisons of the consequences with observations or measurements are important and inevitable for making objective decisions. Moreover, either someone or everyone is responsible for showing objective consequences that help to become independent of images crystallized from daily experiences and to form objective images being nearer to the realities corresponding to the images. Unless at least science shows these objective consequences, science should be blamed for its inability to show them.
A process of creating an image being nearer to a reality corresponding to the image must involve both the attempt to modify memories and the attempt to adjust a conception. In the process, it must be inevitable to encounter at least a decision or an idea that is supported by neuronal network systems remaining sufficiently stable. The necessity of changing it or the rationality of changing it is not sufficiently capable of convincing the brain consisting of over 100 billion neurons.
The recognition of risk accompanied by attempt to obtain benefit from the price of a security varying probabilistically can coexist in the brain with the consciousness that expects imagined attractive consequences. Naturally, the will to try to recover a decision or an idea coming from neuronal network systems, which have a high stability no matter how inconsistent and problematic an encountered situation is, can coexist in the brain with the consciousness that expects benefit to be obtained from the situation. Moreover, the will to try to understand anomalous phenomena and anomalous objects that have belonged to the category of no awareness so far can coexist in the brain with the consciousness that encourages the brain to give up thinking deeply and to respect the work of neuronal network systems cultivated by both daily experiences and common pieces of knowledge. The will to try to understand the anomalous phenomena and the anomalous objects can coexist in the brain also with the consciousness that encourages the brain to make up explanations with combining empirical interpretations. Even an interest in developing ethics for avoiding unexpected and unpleasant nonlinear responses to the use of technological breakthroughs can coexist in the brain with an interest in more rapidly achieving more advanced technological breakthroughs.
Accomplishing any advanced technological breakthroughs through combining only empirical interpretations is not easy. Common sense persuades everyone to recognize great difficulty in accomplishing them. Everyone is made to feel surprised at a specific moment when a breakthrough shows a stimulating contrast to images that are originated by the work of neuronal network systems cultivated by daily experiences. The great surprise allows people to have the expectation that hopeful breakthroughs continue to technologically brighten the civilization. The great surprise also encourages the will to try to gain imagined attractive consequences. The will to try to gain attractive consequences can encourage consciousness to be focused on an interest in what the attractive consequences only will come simply and linearly. An interest in linear responses induced by breakthroughs can easily become more dominant in the consciousness than an interest in unexpected nonlinear responses to the use of the breakthroughs.
Even if this shows the reality of the mind, the consciousness that cares about unexpected nonlinear responses to the use of the breakthroughs can coexist in the brain with the will to try to enjoy an attractive situation where the effects of breakthroughs are linear and acceptable responses to expectations. This psychological situation should be carefully respected, so that science should make efforts to reveal the unexpected nonlinear responses that remain unknown. If science does not make efforts to reveal them, science must be blamed for the neglect of the efforts. Science should continue to help the brain to make images depending on memories approach the reality of the current situation. Science should continue to help cerebral activity to form images being the nearest to a reality corresponding to the image.
Attempts to reveal unexpected nonlinear responses to the continuous use of the breakthroughs are the first step for caring about the equality the current generations and far future generations. The direction for developing ethics for avoiding the nonlinear responses should be limited by at least a criterion given as the requirement of the equality between the current generation and far future generations. The brain consisting of over 100 billion neurons is capable of accomplishing various breakthroughs due to the aid of the great function of nerve cells that allows new connections to be formed between the nerve cells. Even if the brain is being immersed in a psychological situation where it denies that there exists something belonging to the category of no awareness, it is the cerebral organ that is aided by the great function of nerve cells and enables any breakthroughs. Efforts to reveal images being the nearest to realities must enable the brain both to overcome difficulties and to avoid problematic situations.
The will to try to recognize the reality of each object that is giving us no awareness allows opportunities to encounter amusing, pleasant, and interesting stimulation that occurs from knowing of each surprising image being the nearest to each reality. An opportunity to allow everyone to voluntarily induce curiosity about a surprising image being the nearest to a reality must become the first step for beginning going toward the consciousness caring about unexpected nonlinear responses. Experiments and observations continually reveal various interesting nonlinear phenomena. Some of them demonstrate that vacuum has various specific nonlinear properties that enable electrons and quarks to gain their own masses and enable the expansion of the universe to be accelerated. Vacuum is the source of every electron and every quark, i.e., the source of every atom. Nonlinear responses that allow infinite diversity to appear in the universe suggest that everything of which we are aware is not everything. To encounter an interest in unknowns that may be accompanied by everything, we should be carful about everything caused by nonlinear responses.
Atoms can emit light when having additional energy. The emission of the light occurs via two processes. One of the two is a nonlinear process. In the nonlinear process, the emission of the light occurs from atoms that are being exposed to other light emitted from other atoms. This nonlinear light emission process contributes to producing laser beams. Certainly, being aware of the nonlinear light emission made it allowable to give birth to the will to technologically try to produce laser beams. In the present, laser beams are being applied to many advanced electro-optical techniques. This is a positively interesting example resulting from being carful about nonlinear responses.
Naturally, producing unexpected negatively nonlinear responses should be carefully avoided. If avoiding producing them and carefully avoiding increasing entropy beyond the threshold of the planet are achieved, Homo sapiens must be capable of seeing a large number of beautiful stars in the night sky. The probability of seeing many beautiful brightening stars depends on at least continual attempt to make efforts to reveal something belonging to the category of no awareness, continual attempt to make efforts to help to enlarge awareness, and continual attempt to make efforts to avoid unexpected negatively nonlinear responses.
The Andromeda Galaxy that allows its brighter central region to be visible to the naked eye is a spiral galaxy, which is located at a position being far from the Earth by a time-space like distance of approximately 2.5 million light years. The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way galaxy at the speed of about 110 kilometers per second. In 3.75 billion years, the Milky Way galaxy is predicted to collide with the Andromeda Galaxy. Merging the two galaxies allows a giant elliptical galaxy or a large disk galaxy to be formed, according to computer simulations of how the collision between the two galaxies proceeds. If Homo sapiens succeed in maintaining the civilization until this event occurs, Homo sapiens will find many beautiful stars belonging to a merged galactic form called the Milkomeda. Then, the night sky will be filled with brightness of a large number of beautiful stars.
Now observations due to the Hubble Space Telescope permit the brain consisting of over 100 billion neurons to encounter the fact that the Earth belongs with 100–400 billion brightening stars to the Milky Way galaxy, which exists with more than one hundred billion beautiful galaxies in the observable universe having the time-like extent of 13.8 billion light years. The brain continues to deepen understanding of the whole of the universe. The brain that is capable of deepening it is capable of revealing the reality of the whole planetary system. The brain has a potentiality for more deeply understanding the reality of the capacity of the Earth, the reality of the planetary environment, and the reality of the planetary ecology, even if the brain continues to be exposed to an artificial atmosphere surrounding industrial products. Encountering these realities must aid the brain to raise the interest in the duration of the civilization. Even if neuronal network systems maintaining structures originated by human DNA encourage the brain to stay unaware of unexpected nonlinear responses, it is possible for the great function of nerve cells to go beyond any limitation protected by the work of the neuronal network systems that reject flexibility. The brain consisting of over 100 billion neurons can allow cerebral activity to become free from any restriction caused by the neuronal network systems. Then, science must reply to its responsibility to aid in becoming free from the restriction. Ultimately, Homo sapiens can continue to enjoy living in the ecological condition where the equality between the current generation and far future generations can be protected.
Beyond limited conditions born by neuronal network systems in the brain
The current situation of the civilization is driven by humanized consciousness that is crystallized by a conception that the aim of the civilization is equivalent to the aim of economic activities. It is characterized by a strong interest in the dependence on economic activities supported by technological and industrial activities. Hence, this situation strongly concentrates the consciousness on efforts to succeed in inventing new devises, new materials, and new techniques enabling advanced treatments. The efforts become more precious for everyone day by day. The aim of the efforts is focused on only linear responses to attractive expectations. The aim of the efforts should be contrasted with a principal aim of science, which is directly supported by an interest in finding the nonlinear mechanisms that make time, space, and materials exist. The aim of science is directly supported also by an interest in knowing the meanings of the occurrence of nonlinear phenomena as are exemplified by self-organization. The aim of science is supported also by an interest in sharing images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images. Knowing the meanings of the occurrence of nonlinear responses to the use of specific techniques or materials is certainly a partial aim of science. Attempt to continue to reveal realities of the nonlinear responses is attributed to an aim of science both to aid in continuing to enjoy the civilization and to aid in reconsidering the meaning of the will to continue to maintain the civilization.
Nobody has the ability to know how many unknowns exist in total. Nobody can count them. However, everyone has the right to know of the realities of all the unknowns including the whole of the consequences dependent on human activities, the whole of the Earth and the whole of the universe involving dark energy, dark matter, and the structure of space-time. Everyone has the right to know of the realities of all the relations such as the relation between human activities and the Earth, the relation between the existence of Homo sapiens and astronomical objects including neutron stars and black holes, the relation between the universe and the properties of vacuum, and so on.
Responsibility for replying to the rights as mentioned above must be naturally generated. Accomplishing attempts to reveal realities of something remaining unknown with obeying the responsibility must allow our culture to become rich. Consequences obtained from the attempts can cause a measureable happiness dependent on how many unknowns have permitted their realities to be revealed. No one must deny that the brain is curious. However, the consciousness that is required accurately to satisfy common sense without flexibility has potentialities for inhibiting the brain from being aware of realities of something remaining unknown. Consequences obtained from succeeding in revealing these realities can certainly contribute to a measureable happiness dependent on how many surprising reasons carried by the realities everyone knows.
Cerebral activity for enlarging awareness of realities of unknowns being equivalent to nothing should be aided by either science or philosophy. Sharing the meanings of revealed images that are the nearest to any realities should be aided by at least science. Science has a duty to reveal realities of unknown matters being equivalent to nothing. Some of these realities including earthly matters should contribute to developing either ethics or philosophy for continuing to enjoy the civilization. A principal aim of technology is not to accomplish attempts to predict unknown nonlinear responses, and also its aim is not to directly help us to have an opportunity to enable images formed about the Earth to approach the various realities of the Earth. Accomplishing attempts to predict the unknown nonlinear responses is attributed to science, and unless science accomplishes the attempts, it will not be respected. Unless scientific predictions based on observations and computer simulations can help to objectively and quantitatively develop ways of recognizing the Earth, science does not have a value for helping the continuation of the civilization. The will to make the civilization continue must become more important than the will to simply make the civilization become attractive. Unless science can contribute to making the civilization continue, the meanings of the accumulated scientific knowledge will be lost finally. Unless science can contribute to people who make efforts to develop the consciousness for minimizing an additional entropy dependent on unexpected and unpleasant nonlinear responses and for making the civilization continue, scientific activities and scientific knowledge will not be respected.
A principal responsibility for the occurrence of nonlinear responses induced as psychological responses can be considerably attributed to an activity of a pair of small neural tissues. The pair is comprised of important small neural tissues called amygdalae, and is located deep inside the brain. The pair is capable of influencing various neuronal network systems that involve the hippocampus, other parts of the limbic system, and local areas belonging to the cerebral cortex. In the society, there may be various issues depending on to what degree the stimulated amygdalae induce pleasant response or fearful response.
What the brain wants -- more comfort, convenience, and benefit -- must harmonize with at least the planetary ecology. A matter dependent on how expectations for continuing to enjoy living harmonize with the planetary ecology may be one of the issues that must be linked with pleasant response coming from the stimulated amygdalae. The amygdalae or the left amygdala being stimulated by attractive expectations imagined from the use of advanced technology can induce pleasant response. If no one aids in being aware of the reality of the ecology and the meaning of preserving the ecology, the pleasant response must make neuronal network systems function dominantly. Then, unless science makes continual efforts to confirm both the reality of the ecology and possibilities of unexpected nonlinear responses, science must be blamed for abandoning responsibility for enlarging awareness.
Certainly, it is impossible for the brain to succeed in looking over the realities of everything that is unconsciously neglected. However, if images being the nearest to the realities are continually accumulated, it is allowable to predictably perceive the occurrence of unexpected and unpleasant nonlinear responses as accurately as possible. Moreover, continually accumulating images being the nearest to the realities must allow the enhancement of a potentiality that allows the brain to become independent of even a situation where the amygdalae cooperating with the nucleus accumbens being part of the limbic system strongly subject cerebral activity to a pleasant sense caused by a derived satisfaction. Then, the possibility of avoiding an unexpected increase in the entropy must be raised.
Human DNA has allowed the cerebral cortex in the brain to be developed. The cerebral cortex enables Homo sapiens to obtain a great advantage for overcoming even any difficulties originated by cerebral activity except when the cerebral activity is strongly cooperating with aggressive response of the stimulated amygdalae. When the cerebral activity cooperates with the aggressive response while being amplified by the excellent memory function, the behavior of Homo sapiens is completely distinguished from that of the other creatures, as is found from a book “On Aggression” written by Konrad Lorenz, the Austrian zoologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with the other two scientists. Fortunately, the human cerebral cortex must be capable of allowing cerebral activity to accomplish a breakthrough in the establishment of a way to socially and psychologically moderate a complicated reason why a miserable situation can be generated. The human cerebral cortex must be capable of allowing the cerebral activity to accomplish a breakthrough in the establishment of a gentle way of taking care of anomalously neural phenomena that proceed with unpleasant impulses emitted from the amygdalae stimulated by the aid of the memory function involving the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and other neural tissues in the brain consisting of over 100 billion neurons.
Even if the human cerebral cortex is designed by human DNA, the aid of a great function of nerve cells constituting the brain can allow the human cerebral cortex to have the ability to become independent of the path determined a priori by the human DNA while being aided in accumulating images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images. Nerve cells can make their axons grow by the aid of the growth factors. The growth of the axons adds new neuronal connections in the brain, and it raises the possibility that the brain gains a gentle ability to overcome difficulties caused by human DNA. The formation of new neuronal connections raises the probability of generating a neuronal nonlinear response allowing cerebral activity involving the stimulated amygdalae to calm down. Moreover, another nonlinear response helped by the release of a specific hormone called oxytocin aids empathy to percolate through each sympathetic cerebral activity into the society independently of various minds. A neural tissue called the hypothalamus can aid consciousness in socializing, while accompanying the release of oxytocin. The health of the civilization must depend at least on how deeply everyone accepts the fact that a social condition allowing everyone to cooperate with each other and a neural condition allowing everyone to cooperate with each other are linked with each other.
Inducing helpful neuronal nonlinear responses in neuronal network systems must be helped by encountering at least images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images. Efforts to reveal realities of everything that remains unknown and belongs to a category characterized by no awareness must be continually made. Moreover, the efforts must be aided in accompanying the cerebral activity that proceeds while making various portions of neural tissues in the brain cooperate.
The brain can, certainly, feel images generated by activation of neuronal network systems involving several neural tissues, and can feel even images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images. However, the brain does not have the sensitivity for feeling activation of each individual neuron. This is a regrettable inability that the brain encounters. Fortunately, when the brain is active for making the above efforts proceed, techniques of functional MRI reveal how many neuronal network systems work cooperatively. The techniques allow of replying to the right of everyone, i.e., the right to know how and how many neural tissues are made to work when the brain is active to overcome difficulties. Naturally, the active portions of neural tissues, in which local blood flows increase, become more and larger in proportion to the number of factors that are simultaneously considered.
In the active portions, neurons make their axons grow, and as a result, activated neurons can contribute to the formation of new neuronal networks. The more active portions participating in cerebral activity are, the higher the probability that new neuronal networks are formed should become. Ultimately, the high probability of forming new neuronal networks can contribute to raising the possibility of forming the new neuronal networks that allow cerebral activity to become free from restriction appearing for human DNA.
Attempt to help this neuronal nonlinear response caused by the growth of axons to occur in the brain is dependent on attempt to continually aid in seeing new images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images, and is important for approaching reasonable consciousness involving consciousness being acceptable for the Earth. The reasonable consciousness must enable everyone to continue to enjoy the civilization while keeping the equality between the current generation and far future generations. Hence, active portions of neuronal tissues should be helped to become wide and various so that the brain can make cerebral activity proceed independently of the common consciousness being strongly dependent on daily experiences while considering all the images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images.
Independence of cerebral activity from the consciousness
Working the new neuronal networks formed by the neuronal nonlinear response must be inevitable for dealing with unexpected nonlinear responses, and revealing what kinds of unexpected nonlinear responses occur corresponds to an aim of science. Certainly, finding out precious pieces of scientific knowledge that can contribute to the development of technology allows a number of people to be pleased. However, the part of science exemplified by such a contribution to technology is sometimes strongly blamed for the occurrence of unexpected and unpleasant nonlinear responses. The contribution that enables the society to encounter the unexpected and unpleasant nonlinear responses allows even skepticism toward science to be generated.
On the other hand, a part of science that makes any risk due to unexpected nonlinear responses become notable must be usually acceptable. The part of science allows everyone to see unexpected situations that cannot be simply accepted, and the part can reply to the right of everyone, i.e., the right to know of the unexpected situations. The existence independent of consciousness belongs to a category characterized by no awareness and is equivalent to nothing. The whole of unknown risk independent of consciousness must continue to be made to become notable. Attempt to continually reveal the unknown risk for continuing to enjoy living on the Earth is attributed to an aim of science.
the international will to protect the equilibrium state of the planetary
environment from anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases should continue to
be aided. At least attempts to observe
and analyze the atmospheric concentrations of specific molecules being capable
of absorbing infrared radiation have to be performed by science. Moreover, attempts to induce and enhance an
interest in images being the nearest to the various realities of the Earth have
to be achieved by the aid of science. It
is important to be encouraged to spontaneously confirm, through the aid,
whether the acceptability of the present consciousness is sufficient or not,
since new neuronal networks that can deal with new images being the nearest to
the realities can coexist in the brain with sufficiently stabilized neuronal
network systems that allow of maintaining expected hopeful images isolated far
from the realities. Continually maintaining the images being far from the
realities can be equivalent to raising risk of encountering unpleasant
situations being similar to a specific situation allowing the occurrence of
epidemics exemplified by Ebola virus, SARS virus, or serious influenza virus.
Nonlinearity can, naturally, appear either with positive effects exemplified by breakthroughs or with negative effects exemplified by pollutions. For everyone, knowing the meanings of the occurrence of nonlinear responses accompanying any risk is necessary, and knowing the meanings should be accomplished as an aim of science for continuing to enjoy the civilization. Fortunately, many international wills to reduce unpleasant nonlinear responses have been confirmed. The existence of the international wills allows us to feel confident of maintaining the equality between the current generations and far future generations and confident of continuing to enjoy the civilization.
The greatest difficulty may be negative nonlinearity of cerebral activity involving the stimulation of the amygdalae. Certainly, the cerebral cortex characterizing the human brain is caused by human DNA, and has positively great potential. However, cooperating with the amygdalae can allow the cerebral cortex to amplify negative potential. Fortunately, the brain is capable of making cerebral activity become independent of a structural restriction caused a priori by human DNA. The cerebral activity can evolve the quality of the cerebral activity while the cerebral activity is continuing to trigger the growth of neurons involving the linkage between different portions of neural tissues. Stimulation induced by the aid of images being the nearest to realities can help the cerebral activity to evolve its quality. Even if cerebral activity that proceeds in a particular condition that only limited portions of neural tissues participate in working persuades Homo sapiens to cause any problems, the brain is capable of performing cerebral activity that proceeds in another condition that more various and wider portions of neural tissues participate cooperatively and simultaneously in working. The potential of neuronal network systems accompanying the growth of neurons gives Homo sapiens the capability to overcome any difficulties.
Although the brain does not have the sensitivity for feeling activation of each individual neuron, the brain can feel new images generated by activation of neuronal network systems involving new neuronal connections, and can feel even precise images being the nearest to realities corresponding to the images. Seeing precise images being the nearest to the realities of things and phenomena is important and should be aided by science. Such precise images allow the brain to make cerebral activity proceed toward breakthroughs in understanding. Continually seeing precise images being the nearest to at least the realities of the Earth encourages everyone to emphasize the protection of the equality between the current generation and far future generations. The will to protect the equality allows the brain to have an opportunity of being reminded about the meaning of the continuation of the civilization.
while concentrating consciousness on only a specific interest, neuronal network
systems involving the linkage between various portions of neural tissues can
allow the brain to be capable of making cerebral activity independent of the
consciousness. At least an ecological
system having lost the biodiversity becomes fragile. A civilization that allows the diversity of
cultures to be lost owing to the consciousness that is concentrated on only a standardized
interest must become fragile. Fortunately,
the brain is capable of maintaining the diversity of interest while depending
on philosophy and seeing images that are the nearest to various realities. The brain is allowed to have an opportunity of
being reminded about the meaning of the will to continue to maintain the
While keeping the will to try to standardize everything, naturally, the brain is capable of making cerebral activity generate the consciousness that encourages the brain to enjoy the diversity of cultures found on the planet. While either enjoying pleasant moments, or encountering aggressive moments, the brain is capable of making cerebral activity become independent of the consciousness. Even while either making one’s mind filled with grief, or making one’s mind expanded with joy, the brain is capable of making cerebral activity become independent of the consciousness. While both caring about the whole of the knowledge and being satisfied by all the images supported by the acquired information, or while following one of the two, the brain is capable of making cerebral activity generate the will to see all the realities. The brain is capable of making cerebral activities produce nonlinear responses harmonizing with everything to continue to enjoy the civilization and to protect the equality between the current generation and far future generations. The brain is capable of making cerebral activities produce the consciousness being freely interested in various realities of infinite objects and infinite realities of relations between them.
Editor’s Note: This concludes Part IV of this four-part paper.
Parts I, II and III were featured in the three previous issues of this Journal. - JP
The author wishes to think Dr. J. L. Bernhart for having valuable discussions about roles of science and giving valuable suggestions on the manuscript, and Dr. A. Kharrazi for having valuable discussions about climate change and sustainability.
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About the Author:
Tetsuo Kaneko is a Member of the Board of Governors of the Institute for Positive Global Solutions and the BWW Society. Born on November 3, 1953, in Chiba-ken, Japan, he studied physics and chemistry at Chuo University, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in 1977 and 1980, respectively. He pursued postgraduate work at the same university, and received a Master’s degree in 1984 for his study on the force acting upon an ion in an ion-channel.
Mr. Kaneko began his professional career as an Assistant for experiments being conducted at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from 1978 to 1980. He then went on to become a Radiation Protection Supervisor for Koto Microbe Laboratory from 1980 to 1982, a Staff Member for Technical Surveys of Japan at NUS Co. Ltd. from 1985 to 1987, and an Assistant for Environmental Measure performed by Tokyo Food Sanitation Association from 1987 to 1993. Mr. Kaneko also served as an Assistant for experiments at Seikei University from 1990 to 1993, a part-time Lecturer at Medic Bio College from 1994 to 1995, a Technical Assistant for IAI Corporation from 1995 to 1997, a PC Operator for DIS System Trading Co. Ltd. from 1997 to 2000, and a Technical Advisor to Kurakenchikuzoukeisha Co. Ltd. since 2000.
Since 1996 Mr. Kaneko’s main interest has consisted of studying percolation in fluids, focusing his attention on density fluctuations, which are induced as both dense and rare regions of particles by attractive forces reacting between particles in fluids. This concept stems from how the generation of a developed non-uniform distribution of particles in a fluid can cause anomalies in properties such as viscosities, electrical and optical properties of metal fluids, electrical conductivities due to charged particles, the thermodynamics, and so on. For his own percolation estimates, each dense region has been regarded as a physical cluster composed of particles constituting each bound pair satisfying a criterion expressed as “what the sum of the relative kinetic energy and pair potential requires to be negative”. In 1998, Mr. Kaneko was successful in demonstrating that such a physical cluster formed by an attractive force, with the effective range being long enough, has a developed fractal structure with the dimension 1.5. Each percolation phenomenon, due to the growth of dense regions to the infinite size, was estimated analytically using a Yukawa-type potential(s). The results of the percolation estimates were published for single-component Yukawa fluids in 1998, Coulomb fluids in 1999, and multi-component fluid mixtures in 2001.
Aside from his vocational duties, Mr. Kaneko holds memberships in a variety of organizations. He is a Life Member of the American Physical Society, and a Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Chemical Society of Japan, New York Academy of Sciences, and the Physical Society of Japan. His favorite leisure-time activities include watching soccer games, making wood furniture, and mountain climbing.
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