Cancer as a Future Ally and as a Curable Illness
By Professor Marin R. Mehandjiev and Krassimira R. Mehandjieva
Balkan Academy of Sciences, New Culture and Sustainable Development, Sofia Bulgaria
The cancerogenic theory developed and presented in the work is clear one: the cancer is a manifestation of the proper protective mechanism of cellular tissues of all multicellular organisms created in the time of the begin of the evolution of the life on the Earth and preserved in accordance with the Principle of Protective Mechanism Level of the Systems Preservation. For the multicellular organisms, however, the cancer tumour appearance is a dangerous illness. There are many proofs backing that theory and none fact to contradict it. We have been honoured, on the base of that theory, with a Laudation Certificate (here shown) “for the basic research presentation” from the Organizing Committee of the International Congress for Lung Cancer, held in Athens, Greece during 1994, where we presented also the first book “Cancer: Enemy and Future Ally” (in English) in which that theory has been described and proven in detail (Fig. 1) . We propose two new directions for the anti-cancer struggle, based on that theory - the first one could transform the cancer in our ally in the future, but it is associated with a faraway perspective, but the second one can transform already now the cancer in a curable illness - even on a selfhealing base.
CANCEROGENIC THEORY DEVELOPED BY THE NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH OF TAP TO TUMOUR PHENOMENA
A long-term scientific program associated with the evaluation of environmental factor impact effects, especially of cancer causable effects has been organised and implemented by us, applicating the non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach of TAP in that study [2,3]. The first important results have been the classification of the protective means of various systems into six levels and the defining the Principle for preservation of the protective mechanism level of the systems.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE NATURAL PRINCIPLE DEFINED REGARDING THE PRESERVATION OF PROTECTIVE MECHANISM LEVEL OF THE SYSTEMS
According to the Preservation (Conservation) of the Protective Mechanism Level of the Systems Principle defined in TAP, each system, integrated as a subsystem in another, bigger or more general systems, preserves the level of its protective mechanism unaltered and manifests its protective means if it becomes an objects of some immediate, direct impact. The principle has an universal significance; it follows from the principle that, the protective mechanism level is an unchangeable property of each system. The alteration of the protective mechanism level means that the system itself is changed. Therefore, the preserved protective mechanism level of a given subsystem, corresponding to a determined level, will be manifested always, when an impact begins to act directly upon that subsystem. The stimulation of the subsystem protective mechanism in those cases is independent of its effects for the entire integrating system. It is essential that, the principle permits the possibility of non-coordinated, even opposed actions of the protective mechanism of a subsytem (integrated system), on the one side, and of that of the integrating system, on the other, if these mechanisms are of different levels. Therefore, the protective actions of a certain subsystem can be even dangerous for the existence of entire system, or of other subsystems and vice versa. (The six levels of the protective mechanisms of the systems distinguished in TAP are presented in Table 1).
That conclusion is of special importance for the multicellular organisms as integrating systems. In those systems we should distinguish, on the one side, the protective mechanism of the whole system of 6th level, which is including protective means localized in special subsystems, with selective or common action against external inpacts. On the other side, there exists the preserved unchanged protective mechanism of the organism subsystems - of the tissues; that mechanism is of another - 5th - level; it can be provoked by impacts which act directly upon the tissues and, it cannot have protective predestination regarding the whole organism.
In Figure 2 the manifestation of protective counteractions of an integrating system, which is built of five subsystems and possesses a protective mechanism of 6th level and, of the integrated subsystem “3”, which has a protective mechanism of 5th level preserved unchanged, is schematically presented. The integrating system has a special protective subsystem “1”, which is shown as outer cover and has a certain selective action. In the legend of Figure 2 the alterations in two different cases: (a) and (b) are described. The subsystem “1” cannot have an equal action against external and internal impacts; moreover, the protective mechanism of subsystem “3” is of a lower level and is, therefore,
more stable and with a more universal application, than that of the whole system. Thus, it should be expected that the protective subsystem “1” could not resist efficiently the disturbance of the system state, provoked by the action of the protective mechanism of subsystem “3”. The effects 3’ shown in that figure represent, schematically, an universal counteraction of subsystem 3: a decrease of the impact surface density by subsystem volume (and its surface area) increase. The generalized scheme of the phenomena in an affected integrating system, shown in Figure 2 is based on the principle for preservation of systems protective mechanism level and is closely associated with the cancerogenesis in the tissues of the multicellular organisms.
UNIVERSAL PROTECTIVE MECHANISM OF THE TISSUES
From a phylogenetic point of view, the tissues represent older, more primary biological objects after the origin of the life on the Earth, in comparison with the multicellular organisms. As oldest forms of tissues should be accepted formations or groups of uniform monocellular organisms, connected by cohesive forces. The building of those groups - “primary tissues” - could be provoked by negative impacts or even by the lack of sufficient positive impacts. Myxomycetes Dictyostelium discoideum (Figure 3)  is a good contemporary example for the building of tissues from monocellular organisms. Thus, the groups of associated monocellular organisms- - tissues - in the primary ocean have represented, from a thermodynamic point of view, heterogeneous self-controlled systems built by many uniform subsystems. Such integrating systems, similar to the contemporary tissues, being exposed to various positive and dangerous exogeneous impacts: heat, chemical, radiation, mechanical and other kind influences were supposed to develop and possess their own protective mechanism, that should be obligatorily in conformity with the following three conditions:
1. It should have an universal action against all possible impact types;
2. As far as no specialized protective subsystems have been developed and existed, the protective mechanism needed should be based on a feature inherent to all subsystems in the system. i.e., on property inherent to all monocellular organisms;
3. Since the subsystems have been living monocellular organisms with self-control, the common protective mechanism should be associated with the use of a minimum part of the internal free thermodynamic potential of the subsystems, and also associated with a maximum effect achievement.
A protective mechanism that can satisfy these three demands, can also be defined unambiguously. As amongst the impact characteristics, the impact surface density is the only one, that depends on the work done by the impact in unity time, as well as on the surface area of the affected system, through which the impact is implemented. Therefore, an universal counteraction against all positive or negative impact kinds could be ensured only by a decrease of the impact surface density. The impact surface density Ij of a j-energy kind impact is expressed by Eq.(1):
where DWj is the work, kJ, done by j-kind energy upon the affected system; s is the affected surface area of the system, cm2 and, Dt is the impact duration, s. From Eq.(1) one can conclude that the universal protective mechanism can decrease the impact surface density of each impact, only by ensuring the increase of s, i.e. the increase of the system surface area exposed to the impact. In the primary tissues case such possibility has been existed and even based on a feature, inherent to all monocellular organisms: it consisted in a reproduction by division. In the monocellular organisms reproduction, the surface area s has been increased and thus the impact surface density of every impact has been decreased. Hence, two of the conditions put forward regarding the protective mechanism of the primary tissues are fulfilled. It is necessary, however, the third condition to be checked: whether the surface area development is associated with a minimum decrease of the internal free thermodynamic potential of the subsystems, ensuring, simultaneously, a maximum decrease of the impact surface density.
By a computerized model  it has been proven that the surface creating (surface area development) is associated with a minimum internal specific work spent and that that effect should be the preferable one at a protective response of the affected “primary tissue”.
Accepting the proliferation of the primary tissues as an universal protective counteraction, aiming the impact surface densities decrease and, assuming that the impacts increase or are approximately constant at least, and continue during sufficiently long time, we can foresee what should be the logical maximum of that defense action: it can be expressed only in a decomposition of the “tissue” into individual monocellular organisms that compose it, because in such a decomposition, namely, the biggest free surface area will be exposed to the impact and the impact surface density will be minimal one, respectively. Thus, we have a sound base of the assumption that the defense counteraction included in the protective mechanism of the primary tissues corresponds to the 5-th level protective mechanism and that it has been realized in two stages: 1) growth, proliferation of the tissue, and 2) decomposition of the proliferated tissue in separate smaller groups or in individual monocellular organisms. These stages are presented in Table 2 for a system, representing “primary tissue” composed by many monocellular organisms. The states in the beginning of the impact (t = t0); in stage 1, at t = t1 , as well as in stage 2 - t = t2.
It is assumed, for illustration, that at t = t1 the monocellular organisms number is doubled. In stage 2, the new value of the surface exposed to the impact is given, for comparison, but the number of the monocellular organisms is preserved as in stage 1. The impact constancy is by the summation of the impact moving forces constancy expressed.
It should be noted, that the protective mechanism described is in conformity as with the bioobjects protective means polyfunctionality notion, as well with the idea about the evolutionary development of the multicellular organisms. In the primary tissues proliferation, the outer layers of monocellular organisms, exposed to the most intensive impacts and often deaden by these impacts served as protective cover of the inner layers of the “tissue”. Such a protective cover formation can be considered as a manifestation of a primary “differentiation” of the uniform monocellular organisms and as a model for the evolutionary development of the “primary tissues” up to multicellular organisms with differentiated functions of the cells and of the tissues.
It should be emphasized that, the protective mechanism second stage of “primary tissue” decompositiion into smaller groups or single monocellular organisms described should be considered as an evolitionary development stage, since it corresponds to TAP-ideas about evolution. According to TAP every evolutionary stage of an open, non-isolated system can be identified and characterized by a saltatory acceleration of the increase of the impact, which is exercised upon the environment by that system, or by which the system counteracts to external influences; the acceleration is due to a qualitative transformation in the system. Such a transformation is the proliferation of the “primary tissue”, which, as shown in Table 2, by the disintegration has already 134 times more surface area for counteracting the impact, than the initial “primary tissue”.
DEFINING THE CANCEROGENIC THEORY DEVELOPED IN TAP
According to the principle for preservation of protective mechanism level of the systems, defined in TAP, the universal protective mechanism of 5th level developed in the primary tissues and described above, has been preserved unchanged for each group uniform cells, that is formed (included) as a tissue (subsystem) in the multicellular organisms considered as systems. We can not ignore the remarkable coincidence of the cancerous mechanism: proliferation of the tumourous tissue (stage 1) and dispersion (scattering) of cancerous cells in the metastases period (stage 2) on the one hand, with the stages 1 and 2 respectively, given in Table 2, for the protective counteraction of the “primary tissues”. The above notions allow the defining the following cancerogenic theory: tumourous formations in the multicellular otganism tissues represent a manifestation of the proper protective mechanism of the tissues, preserved according to the principle for systems protective mechanism level preservation, and provokable to action when the tissues became objects of direct impact dangerous for their existence; for the integrating system - the multicellular organism, however, the full manifestation of tissue protective mechanism represents malignant alterations, generalized under the name “cancerous tumours”.
Cancerogenesis is not a protective reaction of the multicellular organism considered as a whole, but a protective counteraction of affected separate tisssues (subsystems) of that organism. For the integrating system - the multicellular organism - a manifestation of 5-th - level protective mechanism is an atavistic phenomenon, against which the organism protective mechanism of the higher 6th level cannot counteract efficiently. Moreover, from the systems methodology point of view, the tumours formed in the organism are not its subsystems but independent systems - parasitical alien systems - since the lack of unity in the purposes of the system “cancerous tumour” on the one hand and of the system “organism - carrier” on the other, is more than obvious.
Thus, the new cancerogenic theory can be defined in brief as follows: the cancer is an illnes of all multicellular organism kinds, but is also an atavistic manifestation of the proper protective mechanism of the tissues of these organisms. Most important advantages of that theory can be stated as follows: there are no internal contradictions in it; the known facts regarding the appearance and development of cancerous formations in the organism tissues can be explained by it deductively. For example, the known and up to now inexplicable fact about the impossibility of provoking tumourous alteration in the monocellular organisms like Amoebina, is explainable by the new theory naturally: the cancerous protective mechanism is created in the development level of the primary multicellular tissues and can not be provoked in the lower development level of the individual monocellular organisms. An other well-known fact regarding the immortality of cancerous cells and tissues put in nutrient media can be also explained naturally: the protective cancerous mechanism developed in the primary tissues composed by monocellular organisms is associated with undifferentiated cells, which can be considered as similar to the primary monocellular organisms; the monocellular organisms, however, are immortal always: they can die by violence only; the natural, age-caused death is invented by the multicellular organisms, that have differentiated cells.
According to the new cancerogenic theory, impacts of all kinds: radiations, supersound, viruses, stresses, chemicaal substances (even substances synthesized in other organs of the same organism), various pressures, etc., exerted during a sufficiently long time, and with an appropriate impact surface density, upon a cellular tissue can provoke cancerous tumour appearence. Among the radiations and emissions, even those of so-called “biofields” can be dangerous ones, and that suggestion could explain the “cancerous” or “tumourous” houses or could be in conformity with the cancer appearance frequency amongst oncologists; the cancer is not a communicable disease, but the biofield-emissions of cancerous tissues can inform the unaffected cellular tissues of healthy persons, that are in a permanent closeness, that “there exist a dangerous impact” and thus to provoke the manifestation of the same protective mechanism also in the tissues of those people. It is known, that the information exchange between isolated living cell groups is proved experimentally. From those notions follows that, the more intensive and more accelerated an impact is, and the more unusual, or more strange the impact energetic kind is, the bigger is the probabilllity of impact passing through the specialized defense subsystems of the multicellular organism without their counteraction and, therefore, the bigger is the possibility of cancerous tumour provoking. The newly synthesized chemical substances, the number of which increases continuously are among the most strange factors of those impacts.
Regardless of the computerized model results considered, the new theory has been supported indirectly by an analogous modelling of the cancerogenesis by the phenomena associated with the 3rd-level-protective mechanism manifestation.
ANALOGOUS MODELLING OF CANCEROUS MECHANISM BY 3rd-LEVEL PROTECTIVE MECHANISM PHENOMENA
From the Table 1 we can ascertain that the basic difference between the natural systems protective mechanisms of the 5th level, on the one hand, and of the 3rd level, on the other, consists in the fact, that the natural systems possessing 5th-level protective mechanism are living systems with self-control. By that difference only the 3rd-level protective mechanism of the inanimate affected systems can be distinguished from that of the 5th level of some affected biosystems. Heterogeneos systems are the impact results in both levels; moreover, the new subsystems in both levels are due to accumulation effects, that decrease the impact surface densities. Those circumstances gave a good opportunity of an analogous modelling application regarding the malignant tumour stages, by the 3rd-level protective mechanism phenomena. The affected (accumulation) system for analogous modelling and simulation comprises the electrolytic space of an apparatus for cathodic deposition of zinc in isothermal-isotonic conditions, at gas-free inter-electrode electrolyte volume and at constant: current density, voltage, solution concentration and inter-electrode distance. The conditions enumerated above ensured a constancy of the impact upon the system during the whole process time and have been achieved with a laboratory apparatus specially constructed. A part of the Table 1 is presented in Table 3, where the analogous phenomena - processes and effects - in the successive stages of 3rd and of 5th protective mechanism levels are juxtaposed. In the both protective mechanism levels, new, not typical subsystems in the first stage and dispersed subsystems in the second stage are developed as results at the accumulation processes and effects. The phenomena observed in the analogous modelling experiments related to the 5th protective mechanism level described above have been identical with the phenomena presented schematically in Figure 4.
QUANTITATIVE EVALUATIONS IN THE CANCEROGENIC THEORY BASED ON TAP-REGULARITIES
Mathematical models have been developed and quantitative assessments have been made using the regularities of TAP [1, 3] in the course of defining and analysing the cancerogenic theory presented above. Thus, the following quantities have been ascertained:
1. The energetic level: 7360,3 J/g, at which the vital processes in the cancerous tissues are performed. After Szent Györgyi , the energetic level of the processes in normal cellular tissues is about 7945,8 J/g.
2. The number of cancerous cells in the human organism: 4x104, which corresponds to a state of qualitative transformation in the system - the begin of an irreversible destruction of the organism-carrier; that number is enclosed in a tissue volume of 3.6x10-4cm3, or in a sphere with a diameter of 0,2.cm approximately;
3. The cohesive tension coefficient of the cancerous cells: 3.4 J/cm2; that coefficient of the normal cells is 3,67 J/cm2;
4. The appearance of the metastases should be expected not earlier than 13 months after the formation of the primary cancer in the human body.
QUANTITATIVE MODELS IN THE ASSESSMENTS OF CANCER-PROVOKABLE IMPACTS
Many and various mathematical models have been proposed and used by the commissions of experts for the assessment of the health risk of people, exposed to environmental harmful components action. Those models are developed by application of the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methodology used recently by the USA-authorities; some of the models are recommended by the World Health Organisation. Regardless of that, all methods are developed on the basic of the following preconditions, accepted in QRA and ascertainable clearly, e.g., in the case of the relationship associating the benzene impact duration and the leukaemia appearance cases.
Firstly, the assumption that the relation: “real dose - impact duration - response” is a linear one, i.e., that the risk magnitude (the additional number of deaths (AND) per 1000 persons affected annually is a linear symbatic function of toxic substance concentration as well as of impact duration;
Secondly, the data available regarding the background risk (BR), i.e., data about the probability of lethal cases due to other specific cause, without the toxic substance influence (number per 1000 annually), as well as data about the statistically proved probability (SP), of leukaemia cases (number per 1000 yearly);
Thirdly, the data available for the ADN-cases observed, caused by the impact of toxic substance with a certain concentration Co (mg/m3 or ppm) during Ao years or hours.
Fig. 4. Appearance (presented as a section perpendicular to the cathode surface) and thickness d , cm of the electroprecipitated metal, as well as qualitative alteration of the value of the accumulation system free thermodynamic
potential Ô with the time tm, min in the electroextraction of zink.
Alternative models calculating ADN of the impact by benzene concentration C ( mg/m3 or ppm respectively) after A years (hours) give too discernable results using egual input data. They can be presented approximately by the following generalized expression:
It would be suggested that, the purpose of such models development is, the harmless concentrations of cancer provokable pollutants to be prognosticated. It is evident, however, that models of (4)-type can be extrapolatively used only regarding such substances, about which there are knowledge and data collected; the models are associated with the principle basis of general toxicology refered to so-called: “chrono-concentration poisons” and are not conditioned by a special theory about tumours formation. Moreover, they do not included other impact kinds excepting the chemical (concentration) influences regardless of the fact, that the cancerogenic action of those other impact kinds is known long ago.
Polyetiological character of the cancerogenic theory here presented, necessitated appropriate models developmemt, in order all possible cancer-provokable impacts to be covered. Two types mathematical models for the cancer appearance as response-function of the magnitudes of n various impact kinds have been developed.
The first models type are associated with the probability Yonc, of cancer appearance in laboratory experiments with tissue samples, e.g.:
where C* is the mean “strangeness” of the total impact, cm2/J; C’*r is the strangeness of r-kind energy, cm2/J; Ir is the impact intensity of the r-energy kind, J/cm2s; Ir can be considered as the surface density of impact flux because of its dimension. Expressions (5 a) and (5 b) can be easily transformed into more practical forms:
(6 a) (6 b)
where Pr is the intensity factor of r-kind energy (in a mass action case, Pr is the concentration of r-type substance); s is the free surface of the tissue sample affected; Nonc is the cancerous cells number after Dt time, and N is the initial cells total number; the values of C* and C*r can be experimentally ascertained:
The second models type ascertain Ycanc, that is also a response-function, foreseen to be comparable with the data obtained in observations in the geocancerology or environment cancerology. That is why, the model for Ycanc is also a linear model. Ycanc depends on the relative increase of the cancer-provokable factor values juxtaposed to the background values of these factors. The following model is proposed about Ycanc:
where C* is the “strangeness” of the r-energy kind impact, cm2/J; Pr is the intensity factor of r-energy (in mass action, Pr is the concentration of r-kind substance); AND=additional number of deaths per 1000 affected persons annually; St(r)-maximum admissible concentration or standard regarding Pr in a given country or region; A - impact duration, years; Am-average lifetime, years, in the country (region).
AND«Ycanc calculated according to (7) corresponds to the following conditions: when Pr=St(r) regarding some of the environment parts (air, water, soil), the term including Pr is zeroed, i.e., there is no risk, but in case of: C*r=1, (Nonc,r=N), if, e.g., Pr=2St(r) and À=Am, Ycanc=AND=1000 per 1000 persons when the impact duration is equal to the average lifetime.
A comparative notion, based on the relative coefficients yr of activating imfluences (Table 4) has been introduced about the ordinary impacts “strangeness”. It has been assumed that the “strangeness” is antibatic and even reverse proportional to the value yr of the respective energy kind, as far as yr - values are directly associated with the qualitative transformation provoking in the systems. Thus, the Table 5 can be developed with the theoretical comparative coefficients for calculation of the approximate minimal intensity factor values in cancer mechanism manifestation provokable impacts, using expressions (6). Applicating Table 5, for example, we can calculate, that for a manifestation of the cancer mechanism provoking in a tissue, a continuous impact by mechanical pressure equal to (0.101)7.26=0.733 MPa at least should be exercised, since 0.101 MPa is the ordinary value of this factor (the existing atmospheric pressure). The “strangeness” notion related to the chemical substances, naturally, could be expressed even semi-quantitatively with much more difficulty, as far as many regularities: toxicological, biochemical and stereochemical, as well as the substance spreadings in the earth crust should be considered.
CANCER AS FUTURE ALLY OF THE MANKIND
From the point of view of the considered cancerogenic theory based on the non-equilibrium TAP, there exist enough and indisputable grounds of the assumption, that the cancerous formations in the cellular tissues represent regular results of the action of the tissues protective mechanism - a 5th-level protective mechanism. The defense mechanisms of the organisms, expressed by the specialized protective subsystem functions can act against the cancerous cells and tissues, but being carriers of the protective mechanisms of a higher, 6th level, the organisms usually can not act efficiently against the more primary and more stable protective mechanism of the tissues, the direct result of which is the appearance of cancerous tumours. Moreover, the second stage of this mechanism - the metastases formation - represents a development in evolutionary direction. The multicellular organisms defense means have the smallest efficiency against their proper primary tumours; therefore the studies on the transplanted tumours could have only a limited deductive force regarding the primary cancerous formations.
On the other side, the conclusion in TAP, that the tumour formation is a result of the tissues protective mechanism acting universally against all impact kinds offers also an incomparable possibility of use of this universal defense mechanism, after its improvement in the direction of its evolution.
Thus, the cancerogenic theory here presented has also an unique advantage: it is the single one, that proposes an association of the strugle against cancer with the cancer mechanism purposeful application.
In the analogous modelling we ascertained, that the time-period between the primary cancerous tumour appearance and the metastasing is 13 months at least. During that time, however, the cancerous cells number in the tissue will be of the order 105 - 107, and calculations based on TAP-regularities show that the immunologic control of the human organism could not cope with cancerous cells, the number of which is bigger than 105 - 106. If we could find, however, a manner in which the dispersion of the cancerous calls will be accelerated and accomplished already during the first several months after the primary cancer appearance, the organism immunologic control could destroy the few separate cancerous cells. A great number difficult studies will be necessary for that; studies on the gene differences between the monocellular and multicellular organisms; these investigations could have Myxomycetes Dictiostelium discoideum among their first objects. However, the problem solving in that important study field will ensure additional possibilities of defense for the human organism, as far as by the possession of such improved tumour-formation mechanism, the organism tissues will endure considerably more intensive and more “strange” impacts, for example, radiation influences due to ozone
holes, without injurings bigger than those, consisting in the formation of harmless, limited in number and eliminatable “improved” cancerous cells (since they will be separately destroyed and then eliminated by the excretory system of the organism).Considering the accelerated and unavoidable environment quality deterioration recently and in the foreseenable future, an increase of the human sustainableness regarding the harmful impacts of various kinds acquires a vital significance for our civilization. The cancer mechanism, purposefully improved, could be our big ally in that direction. Naturally, an
utilization of the ideas developed and results obtained on the base of TAP-approach used and presented in this work, cannot be realized without the qualified and even leading co-operation of biologists, biochemists, oncologists and gene-engineering experts. For that, time and a lot of work are necessary, but at the beginning, nothing more is wanted than that, to assume the thought of Nils Bohr: “For a theory could be only asked, whether it is sufficiently incredible, in order to be true”, in the consideration of the ideas proposed in this work. We think, that Nature had not created anything so harmful and useless which could not be used by the humanity, or, in the words of Friar Laurence in Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”:
“For nought so vile that on earth doth live
But to the earth some special good doth give”.
These words correspond entirely to the future utilization of the cancer - one of the contemporary “curses of humanity” - as our ally.
MENTAL-EMOTIONAL HOMOIOSTASES AND SUBCONSCIOUSNESS MOBILIZATION
An interpretation of the compound notion “homoiostasis” can be based on the Greek words used for its composition: “homoios” = equal; the same and, “stasis” = state of standstill; therefore the notion has the meaning “a state, which preserves itself” (one is supposing “a normal and desired state”). Various adjectives can be added to that term and, many new compound notions can be obtained as: “physical homoiostasis”, which could be related to some person; to some tissue or, to some part of the human body. One can assume that the prolonged or continuous disturbance of the normal (or usual) homoiostasis is meaning an anormal state or just an illness, due to some harmful impact concerning the whole organism or a certain organism part.
In a similar manner, the interpretation of the definitive compound notion “mental-emotional homoiostasis” (M-EH) can be made by translating the Latin word “mentis” = “of the mind” and the French word “emotion”, which is originating from the Latin “emoveo” = agitate. Thus, the compound notion has the meaning: “equal and preservable state of the mind and of the emotions” in the sense of “a state of balanced, by mutual compensation, dynamic ratio between the mind and the emotions of a given person, in order an optimum correspondence with the circumstances during a concrete time-period to be acquired and the organism functions needed certainly preserved”. Instead of “between the mind and the emotions”, one can write “between the mental (cognitive, assessive and euristic) abilities, on the one hand, and the emotional abilities, on the other hand”, because, as it is well known, these four abilities are forming together, the totality acceptable as the intelligence of certain kind and degree which is specific for each person. However, since the compensable dynamic ratio means a redistribution of one and the same available energy quantity associated with respective matter-carriers, a question regarding the energy type and the spatial location of the carriers in the redistribution could be, perhaps, arisen. Considering that question reply, however, we shall enter microphenomena belonging to the scientific fields of specialized disciplines, which themselves did not yet answered to the same or similar questions clearly. We can assume only that there exist various M-EH-states, i.e., various mental-emotional homoiostases. The M-EH-states are related to the conscious mind, as well as to the subconscious mind simultaneously, because they both are enveloped by the distribution and redistribution of the available energy.
On the other hand, as result of simple and strict logical and mathematical constructions and of inevitably considerable principles, as well as of the use of basic notions as mass and energy, a contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach permits frequently, from most general positions and by a thorough analysis, the essence of a given phenomenon to be elucidated and used. Moreover, each new inference, even which could be done from the observations at molecular or at submolecular levels, should have possibilities of an insertion in the thermodynamic schemes and descriptions, as well as of a coordination with the thermodynamic principles, if this inference concerns observable and measurable macrophenomena.
Applicating the notions, regularities and the relationships of the non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes (TAP)  we can define that:
“Being an object of a gradual and slow alteration in the years of the whole development of the human organism, the mental-emotional homoiostasis (M-EH) represents a temporal constancy of the dynamic relation associating the mental and the emotional abilities of the human mind; a temporal constancy, preservable during a certain time-period by their antibatic energetic mutual compensations and, due to the general antibatic conjugation between the magnitudes of the free thermodynamic potential and of the bound energy of the organism system, which includes the conscious mind and the subconscious mind - (CM-SM)-system; that conjugation ensures the dynamic sustainability of the (CM-SM)-system”.
THE M-EH AND THE MOBILIZATION OF THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND
There exist the following preconditions, leading to the use of the M-EH and of the subconscious mind mobilization as powerful means against some harmful processes in human organism and, especially against the malignant tumours development:
- The actions of the subconsciousness are associated directly or indirectly with the most vital human goals, like the preservation of the life and the health, race reproduction and, accelerated general development. The subconscious mind programming can be natural, hereditary and, methodically suggested - usually during the earliest childhood - but the suggestion or self-suggestion could be made at each, even old age.
An additional programming of the subconscious mind regarding a new, vital-important goal achievement after the childhood, should be considered as a additional mobilization of the great possibilities of actions possessed by our subconsciousness. However, the new goal should be realizable and in full correspondence with all other vital goals, already accepted in our mind.
- The subconscious mind mobilization for action against malignant tumours is based on the last polyetiologic cancerological theory, here presented, according to which the cancerogenesis represents a manifestation of the proper self-defense mechanism of the tissues of the multicellular organisms.
That is why we developed and are improving an algorithm for the subconscious mind mobilization, by appropriate M-EH-states and commands, in order the necessary internal intensification of the whole organism defense means to be achieved and thus the elimination of malignant tumours to be realized. The possibility of such a self-healing effect is proven by the many cases of tumours spontaneous elimination in the human body, as well as by the cases of tumours healing with appropriate para-psychologist’s help.
M-EH-EXPRESSIONS BY POLYENERGETIC CONJUGATION RELATIONSHIP
An expression of the M-EH-state of the (cm-sm)-system can be derived from the general form of the antibatic polyenergetic conjugation relationship of TAP, associating the free thermodynamic potential Ô and the bound energy of the system:
Ô0.3 B0.4 = Constant (8)
That antibatic relationship corresponds to a state, in which the mutual compensation of the Ô- and the B-changes is realizable by redistribution of the energy quantity available without a new energy-carrier participation.
The Ô of the system participates directly in the interactions proceeding, as a manifestation of the assessive; cognitive; eurektive and, emotional (beyond logics) abilities and the Ô-value is presented by the generalized their energetic values expressable by respective symbols: A (Assessment); C (Cognition); F (Fiction = euretic) and, E (Emotion). The intensity factors attend the interactions directly and an exponent equal to |0.3| is proven in TAP for such factors in cases without qualitative transformation. A qualitative transformation is, evidently, inadmissible for the (cm-sm)-system in normal circumstances.
For its part, B of the system includes the memory and the subconsciousness, the values of which are symbolized by “M” and “S” respectively. Both those parts of B (as all bound energy parts in the thermodynamics) can be provoked to join theirselves in the interactions partially or entirely only in cases of stimulation for action (for M), or, in cases of existing programming for action at certain circumstances only (for S). The exponent value of B and of B-parts is equal to |0.4| in TAP-studies.
Here, however, the Eq.(8) should have the form:
Ô . B = Constant (9)
because we accept only one generalized macroscopic “elementary mental energy”, and the exponent values of the Ô and B should be equal to unity ( ±1) as in the equation of TAP for monoenergetic conjugation expression [1,3]. In a previous work  we used exponents 0.3 and 0.4 without any effect upon the development results and on the conclusions.
Using the considerations made above, the general relationship (8) for the M-EH-states of (CM-SM)-system obtains the following derivative form:
[A C F E][M S] = Constant, (9)
where the brackets are used for clarity only.
Logarithming (9) we obtain the usual summation form of the antibatic conjugation relationship, here applied for the M-EH-state of (CM-SM)-system expression:
(logA + logC + logF + logE) + (logM + logS) = log(Constant) (10)
We can accept here that the system (CM+SM) represents, in its idealized state, a circle, divided for simplicity purposes only into six equal sectors, which, with their area magnitudes, correspond to the energetic values of the factors A, C, F, E, M and S participating in the processes in Eq.(9), as it is presented in Fig. 5. Here should be emphasized that as by Eq.(9), as well as by Fig. 5, the antibaticity of energetic values of the factors is well expressed. We accept that an approximately constant total mental energy quantity is distributed between the factor values. The accurate value of that constant quantity is of no importance for the inferences made.
Obviously, the Constant value will be preserved and redistributed amongst the remainding members of (10), if the energetic value of some of them is reduced drastically. If, for example, the energetic values of A; C; F; M are minimized by alcohol or narcotics, i.e., A ® min; C ® min; F ® min and M ® min, and, since after TAP, the number of members in the relationship cannot be less than two, the Eq.(9) will have the form:
where E1 >> E; S1 >> S; that fact explains the unusual high emotional state effects and the increased self preservation of the drunkards (in cases of following to the ground, injuring, etc., people’s saying is: “a drunkard is made of rubber”), (Fig. 5 b)
The expression (10) is appropriate for understanding the subconscious mind programming for the struggle against cancer and also against other diseases. As said before, that can be made by self-programming or by programming with para-psychologist’s help. That help is associated mainly with an elimination of unfavourable emotions of the sick person, like feelings of uselessness, of predestination to death, of isolation, even of hatred for his relatives part.
For the commands regarding the subconscious mind, the procedure developed by S. Petrie and R.B. Stone  can be successfully aplied. By that algorithm, the values of A, C and E are reduced to possible minimums in several consecutive steps, that means that, the actions of emotional, assessive and cognitive abilities of the conscious mind are minimized and the memory remains without provokations and without new information. In such a case Eq.(9) obtains the approximate form (Fig. 5 c, d):
F M S = Constant (12)
and, assuming the constancy of M-value (no participation in interactions), it can be transfered to the right hand side constant of the equation:
F S = Constant*, (13)
Fig. 5. Scheme of the system (CM+SM) in various M-EH-states.
(a) Idealized input state of a equal distribution of the energy in the mental processes between the parts A, C, E, F of Ô and S, M of the bound energy B.
(b) A state in which M, F, A, C - parts are minimized (a drunkand’s M-EH). (Eq. 11).
(c) and (d) - states in which, a gradual minimization of A, C, E and M - parts is occuring, by a concentration of the mental activity upon a fiction (Eq. 12).
(e) Final state in the process S-programming (by comands - pictural notions), realized in the minimization of the other parts in stages “c” and “d” (Eq. 13).
where Constant* = Constant / M. (Fig. 5, e)
After Petrie & Stone’s algorithm, the achievement of a state, which is approximately and generally expressed by our Equation (6), can be indicated by a special signal of the index finger of one of the patient’s hand’s, called “automatic finger signal” . As soon as that signal is received, the programming commands addressed mentally, by images (F-participation), to the subconscious mind can and should begin. The patient can perform self-imaging procedure or be the recipient of the images and commands generated by the contacting para-psychologist. The images should be directly and clearly associated with the new vital goal, which will be programmed in the patient’s subconscious mind. Furthermore, the images should emphasize the realizableness of the new goal. By these programming commands the defense means actions of the whole organism can be and should be intensified for the struggle against the existing tumour. The images programmed can be not only direct, but also indirect; they just should suggest the picture of realization of the desired goal. Since an illness represents a disorder always, especially in cancerous tumours case, the images should include the idea of a full order.
The most effective healing teams for the procedure application in cancer cases should include, according our notions, oncologist and para-psychologist.
That algorithm can be used simultaneously and harmlessly with all other therapeutical treatments like anti-cancer medicines, etc. However, a fast healing result of the subconscious mind programming by Eq.(13)-notion should not be expected. The result is depending on the patient’s general state. Furthermore, there is an evident difference between the exponents of F and of S; that means that the images transfer in the (cm-sm))-system should be repeated many times in order a full success to be expected. The algorithm described application regarding children demands a careful choice of the image.
The algorithm described, based on the clear preconditions for an internal intensification of the actions of the whole organism defense means in the anti-cancer struggle, does not represent a dangerous “brainstorming”. On contrary, its application demands a full calmness. The idea about M-EH-states of the (CM-SM)-system use for subconsciuos mind programming is just another way for transformation of the cancer in a future ally of the mankind - a goal, which we declared already in the time of the new cancerogenic theory defining.
1. Mehandjiev, M.R. Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes in the Affected Systems. Part 1, Filvest Publ. House, Sofia, 1997
2. Grobstein, C. The Strategy of Life. W.H. Freeman and Co., San-Francisco and London, 1965
3. Mehandjiev, M.R. Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes in the Affected Systems. Part 2, Filvest Publ. House, Sofia, 1997
4. Szent-Gyorgyi, A. Bioelectronics, Academic Press, N.Y,-London, 1968
5. Mehandjiev, M.R. Ecologia i Industria, vol. 3, 1-3 (2001) 6-8
6. Petrie, S. and R.B. Stone. Hypno-Cybernetics. Parker Publ. Co Inc., 1973, New Jersey, USA
BWW Society member Dr. Marin R. Mehandjiev is a noted Chemical and Biotechnological Scientist based in Sofia, Bulgaria. He was born in Sofia on March 8, 1927 and went on to earn his Master of Science degree in Chemical Engineering in 1949 from the State Polytechnic in Sofia, Bulgaria.
In 1960 Dr. Mehandjiev began his career as Technological Manager of the Chemical Factory Itus, and between 1953 and 1964, he was Head of the Chemical Laboratory at the Panagurski Mini Mining Company; Manager of Hydrometallurgical Plant at Elysseina Mining, Ore-Processing and Metallurgical Company; Manager of the Research Centre in Pirdop Copper Smelting Works and became a Researcher at the Institute of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy in Plovdiv in 1964. In 1971 Dr. Mehandjiev obtained his Ph.D. from the High Chemical Technological Institute in Bourgas. Between 1964 and 1986 Dr. Mehandjiev was Associate Professor in Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Institute in Plovdiv at several institutes, such as Niproruda, Orgachim-Rousse and in the Engineering Company Chimcomplect. From 1987 to 1990 he was appointed as Scientific Director of Biotech Science & Engineering Co., Varna, as well as Head of the Chair of Chemical and Biotechnological Processes and Equipment in Institute of Biotechnology, Razgrad. In 1989 Dr. M. Mehandjiev took his second Associate Professor degree in Non- Equilibrium Thermodynamics from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
Since 1990 Dr. Mehandjiev serves as Scientific Secretary of the Association of Bulgarian Environmentalists and Ecologists and Head of the Ecological Modeling Laboratory, and as Lecturer in Ecological Modeling in the South-Western University N. Rilski in Blagoevgrad since 1995. Dr. Marin R. Mehandjiev is author and co- author of more than 400 scientific publications, including 16 monographs. Since 1967 Dr. Mehandjiev developed a new branch of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes (TAP), which deals with the phenomena associated with the introduction, transformation and accumulation of mass or energy, or both, during a measurable time in affected, non-isolated systems. In addition, he developed the first classification of the protective means of the biological systems as affected systems and thus united them with all other systems, classifying the protective mechanisms in six levels. That ensured a possibility of analogous modeling of the phenomena associated with the protective mechanisms. On the base of these studies and of researches on the evaluation of environmental impact effects, especially of cancer causative effects, upon human health, he developed a carcinogenic theory for explanation of the timorous phenomena mechanism.
Many academic circles and organizations have acknowledged his scientific achievements. He became 1 V.1 Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian Ecological Academy of Sciences in 1995, Academician of World Peace Academy in 1998, Doctor of Philosophy Honoris Causa in Political Science of International Academy of Culture and Political Science in 1999, Honorary Member of Spanish Association of Professionals in Occupational Health and Environment, Spain, in 1998, amongst many others. His memberships include the International Committee of The Achievement of Science and Research for the Benefit of the Working People General Federation of Labor, Founding Member of the Balkan Union of Oncology, Member of International Administration of World University Roundtable, Benson, Arizona; and Honorary Member of the Ansted University Board of Advisory Council, Malaysia, to name a few.
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